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Modern HindiGrammar

Omkar N. Koul

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Modern Hindi Grammar

Omkar N. Koul

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Modern Hindi Grammar

Omkar N. Koul

2008Dunwoody Press

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Modern Hindi GrammarCopyright © 2008 by McNeil Technologies, Inc.

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ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5

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Table of Contents

Preface .......................................................................................... i Abbreviations ............................................................................ iii References .................................................................................. iv

1. Introduction 1.1. Area and Its Speakers ......................................................... 1 1.2. Dialects and Classification ................................................. 1 1.3. Hindi - Urdu ....................................................................... 2 1.4. Linguistic Characteristics ................................................... 4 1.5. Status.................................................................................. 4 1.6. Grammars in Hindi ............................................................ 7

2. Phonology 2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental) ...................................... 11 2.1.1. Distinctive Segments .................................................. 11 Vowels ................................................................................ 11 Consonants .......................................................................... 12 2.1.2. Description of Phonemes ............................................ 12 Vowels ................................................................... 12 Consonants ............................................................. 14 Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones ............ 192.2. Phonotactics ..................................................................... 20 2.2.1. Vowel Sequences ........................................................ 20 2.2.2. Consonant Clusters ..................................................... 20 Word-initial Cosonant Clusters .............................. 20 Word-medial Consonant Clusters .......................... 21 Word-final Consonant Clusters .............................. 23 2.2.3. Syllable Structure ........................................................ 24 2.3. Supersegmental Features ................................................. 25 2.3.1. Nasalization ................................................................. 25 2.3.2. Length ......................................................................... 26 2.3.3. Stress ........................................................................... 26 2.3.4. Intonation .................................................................... 27 2.3.5. Juncture ....................................................................... 29 2.4. Morphophonemics ........................................................... 30 2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme ......................................................... 30 2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme .................................................. 30 2.4.3. Alternations ................................................................. 31

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3. Morphology3.1. Nouns ............................................................................... 33 3.1.1. Noun Inflection ........................................................... 33 Gender .................................................................... 33 Number .................................................................. 35 Case ........................................................................ 36 3.1.2. Postpositions ............................................................... 37 The Postposition nao ne ............................................. 37 The Postposition kao ko ............................................ 41 The Postposition sao se ............................................. 47 The Postposition maoM m� ............................................ 52 The Postposition pr par .......................................... 53 The Postposition ka ka ............................................ 55 Compound Postpositions........................................ 57 3.1.3. Noun Derivation .......................................................... 68 Nouns from Nouns ................................................. 68 Nouns from Adjectives .......................................... 70 Nouns from Verbs .................................................. 71 3.1.4. Noun Compounds ....................................................... 72 Noun-Noun Compounds ........................................ 73 Copulative Compounds .......................................... 73 Reduplicated Compounds ...................................... 73 Partially Duplicated Compounds ........................... 73 Superordinate Compounds ..................................... 74 Complex Compounds............................................. 74 Hybrid Compounds ................................................ 74 Adjective-Noun Compounds.................................. 74 Modifier-Noun Compounds................................... 75 3.2. Pronouns .......................................................................... 75 3.2.1. Personal Pronouns....................................................... 75 3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns ............................................. 77 3.2.3. Relative Pronouns ....................................................... 77 3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns ..................................................... 77 3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................ 78 3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns..................................................... 79 3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns ........................................ 79 3.2.8. Compound Pronouns ................................................... 80 3.3. Adjectives ........................................................................ 81 3.3.1. Inflected ...................................................................... 82 3.3.2. Uninflected.................................................................. 82 3.3.3. Types of Adjectives .................................................... 82 3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives ................................................... 84

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3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives ............................................. 85 3.3.6. Numerals ..................................................................... 88 Cardinals ................................................................ 88 Ordinals .................................................................. 90 Fractions ................................................................. 91 Multiplicatives ....................................................... 92 Approximation ....................................................... 92 Aggregation ............................................................ 93 3.4. Verbs ................................................................................ 93 3.4.1. The Verb hona: ........................................................... 93 3.4.2. Main Verbs .................................................................. 95 Intransitive Verbs ................................................... 95 Transitive Verbs ..................................................... 96 Ditransitive Verbs .................................................. 98 Causative Verbs ..................................................... 98 Dative Verbs ........................................................ 100 Conjunct Verbs .................................................... 102 Compound Verbs ................................................. 103 3.4.3. Tense ......................................................................... 105 3.4.4. Aspect ....................................................................... 107 Habitual Aspect .................................................... 107 Progressive Aspect ............................................... 111 Perfective Aspect ................................................. 113 3.4.5. Mood ......................................................................... 116 Indicative Mood ................................................... 116 Imperative Mood .................................................. 116 Subjuntive Mood .................................................. 119 3.4.6. Voice ......................................................................... 121 3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms .............................................. 122 Infinitives ............................................................. 122 Participles ............................................................. 124 Imperfective Participles .................................. 125 Perfective Participles ....................................... 126 Conjunctive Participles ................................... 128 3.5. Adverbs .......................................................................... 129 3.5.1. Types of Adverbs ...................................................... 130 3.5.2. Expressions of Time ................................................. 133 General Time Expressions ................................... 133 Time of Day ......................................................... 133 Period of Day ....................................................... 135 Days of the Week ................................................. 135 Months of the Year .............................................. 135

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (9) Year ...................................................................... 136 Seasons ................................................................. 136 3.5.3. Frequentative ............................................................. 137 3.6. Particles .......................................................................... 137 3.6.1. The Particle Bar bhi: �also� ......................................... 137 3.6.2. The Particle hI hi: ...................................................... 150 3.6.3. The Particle tao to ........................................................ 155 3.6.4. The Particle tk tak �up to� ......................................... 157 3.6.5. The Particle Bar bhar .................................................. 158 3.6.6. The Particle maa~ ma:tr ................................................ 159 3.7. Connectives .................................................................... 160 3.7.1. Mono-morphemic ..................................................... 161 3.7.2. Poly-morphemic ........................................................ 161 3.7.3. Phrasal ....................................................................... 161 3.8. Interjections .................................................................... 162

4. Syntax 4.1. Structure of Phrases ....................................................... 165 4.1.1. Noun Phrase .............................................................. 165 4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases ............................................... 171 4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases ..................................................... 173 4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases ..................................................... 176 4.2. Structure of Clauses ....................................................... 179 4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses .................................................. 179 4.2.2. Noun Clauses ............................................................ 180 Finite Noun Clauses ............................................. 181 The ik ki Complement Clauses ........................ 181 Direct and Indirect Speech.............................. 182 Non-finite Noun Clause .................................. 184 4.2.3. Relative Clauses ........................................................ 187 Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses ............... 189 Non-finite Relative Clauses ................................. 194 Finite Relative Clauses ......................................... 195 4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses ..................................................... 198 Adverbial Clauses of Time .................................. 198 Manner Clauses .................................................... 200 Purpose Clauses ................................................... 202 Cause Clauses ...................................................... 203 Condition Clauses ................................................ 204 Concession Clauses .............................................. 205 Result Clauses ...................................................... 206

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4.3. Sentence Construction ................................................... 207 4.3.1. Copular Sentences ..................................................... 207 4.3.2. Verbal Sentences ....................................................... 211 Direct Object ........................................................ 213 Indirect Object ..................................................... 214 Other Types of Verb Argument ........................... 215 4.3.3. Negation .................................................................... 216 Sentential Negation .............................................. 216 Constituent Negation ........................................... 217 Double/Multiple Negation ................................... 220 Negation and Coordination .................................. 220 Negation and Subordination ................................. 221 4.3.4. Interrogative .............................................................. 222 Yes-No Questions ................................................ 222 Neutral Yes-No Questions .............................. 222 Leading Questions........................................... 225 Question-Word Questions .................................... 226 Echo-Questions .................................................... 246 Yes-No Echo-Questions .................................. 246 Question-Word Echo-Questions ..................... 248 Answers ................................................................ 250 4.3.5. Imperatives ................................................................ 254 Unmarked or True Imperatives ............................ 254 Prohibitive Imperatives ........................................ 255 Degrees of Imperatives ........................................ 257 4.3.6. Anaphora ................................................................... 260 4.3.7. Reflexives ................................................................. 263 4.3.8. Reciprocals ................................................................ 269 4.3.9. Equatives ................................................................... 271 4.3.10. Comparison ............................................................. 274 4.3.11. Superlatives ............................................................. 277 4.3.12. Coordination ........................................................... 278 Coordination and Accompaniment .................... 286 Structural Constraints ......................................... 287

5. Lexicon 5.1. Animals, Birds and Insects............................................. 293 5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables ..................................... 294 5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals ......................................... 296 5.4. Miscellaneous Items ....................................................... 296 5.5. Body Parts ...................................................................... 302 5.6. Occupations.................................................................... 303

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5.7. Kinship Terms ................................................................ 305 5.8. Adjectives ...................................................................... 307 5.9. Verbs .............................................................................. 310 5.10. Adverbs ........................................................................ 315 5.11. Conjunctions ................................................................ 317 5.12. Pronouns ...................................................................... 317

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Modern Hindi Grammar aims at providing basic information onvarious aspects of Hindi phonology, morphology, and syntax alongwith their unique features or characteristics.

Hindi has a special status in India. It is spoken by the largest population in India. It is the official language of the Union of India and eleven state governments, including Delhi. It is taught as a second language in all the non-Hindi speaking states under the three-language formula. Under this formula, a child is supposed to learnhis mother tongue, Hindi, and English. If a child�s mother tongue is Hindi, (s)he is expected to learn an additional modern Indian language or a foreign language. Hindi is taught as a foreign language in a large number of countries throughout the world. Besides need-based language learning materials, there is a need for a pedagogically oriented grammar of this language. The presentgrammar aims to fulfill the need of second/foreign language learners of Hindi in India as well as other countries. A large number of Hindi speakers have settled in non-Hindi speaking states in India, or have migrated and settled abroad. The second generation of these migrants is fast losing contact with their mother tongue in the absence of its use in various domains of their day-to-day life in alien surroundings. They are looking for suitable language learning materials including pedagogically oriented grammars formaintaining the language among their children.

Hindi has a long tradition of grammars and grammatical literature. The existing grammars mentioned in the introduction as well as inreferences are either too old and do not describe modern spoken and written Hindi, or they are sketchy or too scholarly or detailed. Theydo not fulfill the needs of second and/or foreign language learners or those native speakers who want to maintain the language in an alien atmosphere.

This grammar is pedagogically oriented. It will be of special interest to Hindi language learners and teachers in different situations. It will also be of interest to linguists and researchers working in the area oflanguage typology, and to general readers as well.


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In Modern Hindi Grammar we have utilized simple terminology and provided suitable descriptions with tables for grammatical categories, phrases, and sentence types. The introduction gives asurvey of the Hindi speaking area and the number of its speakers, its classification and dialects, Hindi-Urdu relationship, the status of Hindi and its use in administration, education and mass media, Hindi grammars, and the objectives of the present grammar. Thephonology section describes segmental phonemes, suprasegmentals, and morphophonology. The morphology provides a description of different word classes: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections. It deals withinflectional as well as derivational morphology. The syntaxdescribes the structure of phrases, sentence types, complex andcompound constructions, special word order variations, and other intricate syntactic features. The lexicon presents a list of useful classified vocabulary which is useful for students and teachers of Hindi as well as general readers. This grammar emphasizes specialfeatures of Hindi that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. In short, it will fulfill the needs of the basic language learner as well as provide useful information for the linguist and the general reader.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Thomas Creamer,Director, Language Research Center (a division of McNeil Technologies) for asking me to write this grammar and for deciding to publish it. I would like to thank Prof. Anjani Kumar Sinha, andProf. Kashi Wali for going through the first draft of it and foroffering useful comments and suggestions. Finally, I would like tothank my colleagues at the Indian Institute of Language Studies for providing their assistance.

I hope students, researchers, teachers, and linguists will find this book useful.

Omkar N. Koul


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1. first person 2. second person 3. third personabl ablative case adv adverb asp aspiratedaux auxiliary caus causativecond conditional cor correlative cp conjunctive participle dat dative emp emphatic erg ergative fut future gen genitive case hon honorificimp imperative impf imperfective inf infinitiveindef indefinite ms masculine singular neg negative nom nominative non hon non honorific

NP noun phrase obl obliquepart particle pass passivepl plural pol politeposs possessivepostp postpositionpre presumptive prox proximate psp past participle ptc participle q question particle refl reflexive rel relative rem remote sbj subjunctive moodsg singular unas unaspirated VP verb phrase vd voiced vl voiceless* ungrammatical

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1. Introduction

1.1. Area and Its Speakers

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language (a branch of the-Indo-European family of languages), spoken primarily in the states of Bihar, Chattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in India. Besides being the official language of these states it is also the official language of government of India along with English. According to the 2001census, it is spoken by 422,048,642 speakers which include the speakers of its various dialects and variations of speech grouped under Hindi. It is also spoken by a large number ofpeople of Indian origin settled abroad.

1.2. Dialects and Classification

Hindi and Urdu languages have their origins in Khariboli spoken inareas around Delhi. Khariboli was adopted by the Afghans, Persians, and Turks as a common language of interaction with the local population during the period of Islamic invasions and the establishment of Muslim rule in the north of India between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. In time, it developed a variety calledUrdu with significant borrowings from Arabic and Persian and that uses a Persian script. It was also known as rexta �mixed language.� As Urdu gained patronage in the Muslim courts and developed intoa literature language, the variety used by the general population gradually replaced Sanskrit, literary Prakrits, and Apabhramsas as the literary language. This latter variety looked to Sanskrit for linguistic borrowings and Sanskrit, Prakrits, and Apabhramsas for literary conventions. It is this variety that became known as Hindi.

Hindi and Urdu have a common form known as Hindustani which is essentially a Hindi-Urdu mixed language. This was the variety that was adopted by Indian leaders as a symbol of national identityduring the struggle for freedom. Hindi has been used as a literary language since the twelfth century. The development of prose, however, began only in the eighteenth century, which marks the emergence of Hindi as a full-fledged literary language.

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Grierson (1906) has divided Hindi into two groups: Eastern Hindi and Western Hindi. Between the Eastern and the Western Prakritsthere was an intermediate Prakrit called Ardhamagadhi. The modern representative of the corresponding Apabhamsa is Eastern Hindi and the Shaurasena Apabhramsa of the middle Doab is the parent ofWestern Hindi. In the Eastern group Grierson discusses three dialects: Awadhi, Bagheli, and Chattisgarhi. In the Western group he discusses five dialects: Hindustani, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli, and Bhojpuri. Eastern Hindi is bounded on the north by the language of the Nepal Himalaya and on the west by various dialects of Western Hindi, of which the principal are Kanauji and Bundeli. Onthe east, it is bounded by the Bhojpuri dialect of Bihari and byOriya. On the South it meets forms of the Marathi language. Western Hindi extends to the foot of the Himalayas on the north, south to the Jamna valley, and occupies most of Bundelkhand and a part of central provinces on the east side.

The Hindi region is traditionally divided into two: Eastern Hindi and Western Hindi. The main dialects of Eastern Hindi are Avadhi, Bagheli and Chattisgarhi. The Western Hindi dialects are Haryanvi, Braj Bhasha, Bhundeli, Kanuji and Khariboli. The dialects spoken inthe regions of Bihar (i.e., Maithili, Bhojpuri, Maghi etc.) inRajasthan (i.e., Marwari, Jaipuri, Malvi etc.) and some dialectsspoken in the northwestern areas of Uttar Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh were kept away from the earlier classification. Now, all ofthese dialects are also covered under the term Hindi. The standardHindi developed from the Khariboli has borrowed lexical items from Sanskrit and is the vehicle of all official literary and commercialcommunication. It is intelligible throughout the broad Hindi language region. Another literary style, Urdu, has also developed from Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows fromPerso-Arabic sources.

1.3. Hindi � Urdu

Historical and cultural processes and the linguistic affinity whichexists in Indian languages led to the emergence of Hindi-Urdu or so-called Hindustani as the lingua-franca of major areas of India long before its freedom. In an earlier period, the languages of administration, Sanskrit in the case of the earliest Hindu kingdoms, Persian in the case of the Muslim dynasties, and English in the caseof the British regime, have mostly remained confined to the elite.

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Beginning with the invasion of Mohammed Ghori in the late 12th

century AD, the foreign invaders settled down in India to rule. The Slave, Tughluq, Lodi, and Mughal dynasties used Persian in their administration, but they used the local language spoken in and around Delhi for communicating with the people for their day-to-day needs. This local language was a form of Apbhramsha, which eventually became Khariboli; they called this language Hindi - a language belonging to Hind. Thus, the Hindi language derived its name from the Persian towards the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century. During the Mughal period, the word�Urdu� was derived from the Turkish word �Yurt� or �ordu� that meant �military encampment.� This variety was distinguished on the basis of Perso-Arabic influence at the lexical level and was written in the Perso-Arabic script. Hindi-Urdu became the medium of communication between the Muslim rulers and the local people. The southern variety of the speech, best known as Dakhini, also became the medium of literature and socio-religious discourse. This variety is influenced by Dravidian languages as a result of language contact.

Due to a common structural basis, Hindi and Urdu continued to be treated as synonymous for centuries at least up to the period of Mirza Ghalib. Mirza Ghalib called his language �Hindi� on several occasions, though he used the Perso-Arabic script for writing it. He named one of his works �ode-e-Hindi� (perfume of Hindi).Primarily in the domain of different genres of literature, Hindi and Urdu started drifting away from each other not only in the use oftwo different scripts, but also in literary styles and vocabulary. Hindistarted drawing more and more from Sanskrit, and Urdu from Persian and Arabic. The processes continue today.

During British rule, when English was adopted as the official language, local languages were assigned roles for certain functions at lower levels of administration. A competition started between the proponents or supporters of Hindi and those of Urdu for official recognition of their languages. In the first instance, Urdu was recognized by the British in the Northwest and Oudh, Bihar, and the Central Provinces in 1830 AD as the language of the courts. This was followed by the recognition accorded to Hindi in certain areas.Hindi and Urdu were involved in controversy and mutualcompetition for their recognition in various domains of education and administration. The mutual conflicts intensified at the beginning

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of the 20th century. On the one hand, there were proponents of Hindi and Urdu who were eager to maintain separate linguistic identities, and, on the other hand, some national leaders wanted to develop Hindustani as a combined linguist identity on the basis of its use bythe general population.

1.4. Linguistic Characteristics

Hindi shares major linguistic characteristics with other Indo-Aryan languages. It has ten vowels. The length of vowels is phonemic. All vowels can be nasalized and nasalization is phonemic. The Hindi syllable contains a vowel as its nucleus, followed or preceded by consonants. Words usually have two or three syllables.

Nouns are inflected for number, gender and case. There are twonumbers: singular and plural, two genders: masculine and feminine; and two cases: direct and oblique. Nouns are assigned one of the two genders. The gender of inanimate objects is not predictable from theform or meaning. Pronouns are inflected for number and case.Adjectives are of two types: declinable and indeclinable. The first type is uninflected for number, gender, and case, whereas the second type is not.

Verbs are inflected for person, number, gender, tense, mood, andaspect. There are three tenses: present, past, and future; three moods: imperative, indicative, and subjective; two aspects: imperfective and perfective. Hindi is a verb-final language.

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which originated from Brahmi. The Devanagari script for Hindi is standardized, but certainminor variations still exist. In this grammar we are using Devanagariand Roman scripts for the data from the language.

1.5. Status

As stated above, Hindi is the official language of the Union of India and ten states. It is spoken by the largest number of people in India.It is widely used in administration, education, and mass media.

The use of Hindi in administration at the Union level as well as inthe Hindi speaking states is not free from problems (Koul 1994a). There are some serious gaps in the Official Language Policy (OLP),

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and the rules and procedures which are being followed in its implementation. There are problems related to the development of its administrative register. The main problems related to the development of the administrative register are: (i) an artificialcoinage of terminology, (ii) lack of standardization, and (iii) lack of coordination between various agencies and duplication of efforts. Problems related to its practical use include the lack of proper monitoring, lack of encouragement, and absence of strong political will.

The implementation of the OLP at the Union level has become the victim of political indecision, the attitude of its protagonists, the lack of will of the monitoring agencies, and the lack of adherence to the rules and regulations set up for it. Even after its continuous use inadministration for more than sixty years, its development is stillquestioned by critics. There is a need to review the OLP, and therules and procedures of its implemenation to identify its problems and resolve them.

The Constitution of India adopted in 1950 provides for the use ofHindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union.Article 343 states:

The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purpose of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.

Article 351 provides a directive for the development of Hindi as follows:

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium ofexpression for all the composite culture of India and to secure itsenrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, theforms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the otherlanguages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, whenever necessary or desirable, its vocabulary primarily from Sanskrit and secondarily from other languages.

The Hindi language was supposed to replace English in 1965, fifteen years after the adoption of the Constitution of India. The earlysixties witnessed resentment and agitation, primarily in the southern

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states of India, regarding the replacement of English by Hindi. It was argued that Hindi was not developed enough to replace English in its administrative domain. Thus, the Official Language Act (OLA) was passed in 1963 providing for the continuation of English as an associate official language in the Union and also for its use in parliament for an indefinite period of time. The Act dealt with the setting-up of the Committee on Official Language, authorization of the Hindi translation of Central and State acts, optional use of Hindi in judgments of High courts, etc. The passing of the OLA wassuccessful in achieving timely political gains, but it has not been in the interest of the development of Hindi and its use as the soleofficial language of the Union in the years to come.

The development of Hindi has become a complex concern for the Government of India. The development of Hindi is often linked tothe development of other regional languages. The Ministry of Home Affairs (Government of India) Resolution (1968) made some important recommendations in this regard:

1. It is the duty of the Government of India to promote the spread of the Hindi language.

2. The development of Hindi as well as other regional languages is in the interest of the educational and cultural advancement ofthe country.

3. Efforts should be made to implement the Three-Language Formula.

4. Compulsory knowledge of Hindi or English should be essential for the public service of the Union.

5. Languages of the Eighth Schedule should be used as alternative media for examinations for all-India and higher Central services.

The Resolution adopted by the Ministry of Home Affairs has turned out to be merely a political policy statement. It was not followed byan action plan for the promotion or the spread of the Hindi language in a sustainable manner, although it was rightly realized that the development of Hindi and regional languages is necessary for the educational and cultural advancement of the country. No clear-cutstrategies were framed for encouraging their use in education. It didnot stop the mushrooming of competing English-medium private schools. Efforts were made to implement the Three-Language Formula, but, in the absence of proper monitoring of its

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implementation, the Formula itself was diluted by different states, which resulted in its several versions. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has made a provision for the use of languages of the Eighth Schedule as alternative media for competitive examinations, but, in the absence of adequate study materials inHindi and regional languages, English continues to reign supreme as the only viable medium of examinations. Hindi is taught to the officers and staff of the Central service during their in-servicetraining, but there is no urgency for its use as long as Englishcontinues as an associate official language. The Resolution makes important recommendations, but in the absence of an effective action plan and a sense of urgency on the part of the agenciesinvolved, these recommendations are not implemented properly.

Hindi has a significant role in education. It is used as a subject of study as well as a medium of education in India from the primary level to the university level in all the Hindi-speaking states in India.It is also used as a medium for technical education at the lowerlevels. Various organizations at the Union and state levels are engaged in the preparation of textbooks and supplementaryinstructional materials in Hindi. English continues to be a preferred medium of instruction for science and technology at the higherlevels.

Hindi has a prominent role in both electronic and print media. Hindiis widely used in programs on radio and television and in films. The language style of Hindi used in electronic media is close to the spoken variety of so-called Hindustani. In the print media, styles vary from high Hindi to that commonly understood by the Hindi-Urdu speech community. Whereas a few newspapers and periodicalsprefer high Hindi or the Sanskritized style, others prefer to use the Urdu vocabulary. A large number of newspapers, periodicals, andjournals are published in Hindi.

1.6. Grammars in Hindi

Beginning in the eighteenth century, Hindi has a long tradition ofgrammatical literature which falls under the categories of (a) traditional grammars, (b) comparative and historical grammars, and (c) modern linguistic grammars. Bhatia (1987) provides a critical survey of the Hindi grammatical tradition. Traditional grammars describe the language using the traditional framework of Sanskrit

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grammars. Comparative and historical grammars are mostly concerned with presenting the diachronic description of the grammatical features at different linguistic levels, especially phonology and morphology. They are useful for historical linguistsand those interested in the comparative linguistics of Indo-Aryan languages.

Modern linguistic grammars in Hindi have been written with various objectives. Most of the modern linguistic grammars deal with some aspects of syntax at length and tend to apply the western theoreticalmodels and raise theoretical issues. They are useful for linguistsinterested in theoretical discussions and are of little use to the language learners and teachers of Hindi or to general readers. It isimportant to mention a few grammars here.

Aryendra Sharma (1958) prepared first detailed descriptive grammar of modern Hindi in English. It has been revised and printed severaltimes. Though written in a traditional format it presents a good description of Hindi. Different linguistic aspects of Hindi have been described in various dissertations and independent grammaticalstudies lately. I will specially mention three recent works: Mountaut (2005), Kachru (2006), and Agnihotri (2007) written with different objectives.

Moutaut (2005) provides a functional description of Hindi from a typological perspective. She provides a brief phonological outline ofstandard Hindi, its morphological analysis, an analysis of simple clauses and complex sentences. The final section providesrepresentative features of standard Hindi, its various dialects with special reference to other neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. She presents review of the earlier works on the subject and usesexamples from various written texts. It is a first linguistic grammar of Hindi written from a typological point of view and is useful for linguists working in the area of linguistic typology with special reference to Indo-Aryan languages.

Kachru (2006) describes the structure of modern Hindi keeping in view primarily the sociolinguistic context of language use. She provides description of sounds, devices of word formation, rules of phrases, and sentence constructions and conventions and practices oflanguage use in spoken and written texts keeping in view recentlinguistic theories. She also deals with the information and

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discourse structure of the current use of Hindi. This is quite useful for linguists and language learners of Hindi in various situations.

Agnihotri (2007) is a practical reference guide to the core structuresand linguistic features of Hindi. He provides brief description of various simple, compound and complex structures of Hindi. Wordmorphology, phonology, and issues related to Devanagari script are dealt with adequate examples. It is useful for linguists and students of Hindi for reference.

There is a scope for a pedagogically oriented grammar which provides essential information for the use of Hindi language learnersas well as teachers. The present Modern Hindi Grammar is an effort in this direction. It is pedagogically oriented; utilizing simpler terminology and authentic data from standard spoken and written Hindi; providing useful descriptions and tables of grammaticalcategories as well as simple descriptions of phrases, and sentence types designed for the use of language learners, teachers of Hindi at various levels. The Phonology describes segmental phonemes(vowels, consonants), suprasegmentals (length, stress, intonation), and morphophonology (alternations, deletion and insertion,allomorphs). The Morphology provides descriptions of nominal morphology (noun inflection, gender, number, case, postpositions, pronouns, adjectives), verb morphology (types of verbs, verb inflections, voice, tense, aspect, mood, non-finite verb forms), andadverbs. The Syntax describes the structure of phrases, sentence types, complex and compound constructions, other syntactic constructions among other items. The Lexicon presents a classifiedvocabulary of Hindi under 12 sub-sections. It is followed by Index.

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2. Phonology

2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental)

The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved in theproduction of all phonetic segments of the language.

2.1.1. Distinctive Segments

The inventory of the distinctive segments of Hindi is as follows:


Front Central BackHigh i: u: Lower High i u Mid e o Lower Mid � �

Low a a:

The nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. It is represented by the nasalsign � written above the vowel signs as given below:

Front Central BackHigh �: �: Lower High � �Mid � õ Lower Mid �� ��

Low ã ã:

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vl.unasp p t t� k vl.asp ph th t�h khvd.unsap b d d� g vd.asp bh dh d�h gh Affricates vl.unas c vl.asp ch Vd.unas j vd.asp jh Nasal m n n� η

Trill r Flap unasp r�

asp r�h Lateral l Fricative vl f s � x vd z h Semivowel v y

2.1.2. Description of Phonemes Vowels

Oral Vowels

There is a contrast in the position of the tongue, the height of the tongue, and the rounding of the lips in the articulation of vowels.

/i:/ (high front unrounded long vowel): [-d i:d Eid naIr ni:r water jaldI jaldi: hurry

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/i/ (high front unrounded short vowel): [maart ima:rat buildingigarnaa girna: to fall pit pati husband

/e/ (mid front unrounded long vowel): ek ek one rot ret sand jaUto ju:te shoes

/a/ (low central unrounded short vowel): Agar agar if pr par butna na no

/a:/ (low central unrounded long vowel):Aama a:m mango Aarama a:ra:m restAcCa accha: good

/u/ (high back rounded short vowel): ]znaa ut�hna: to rise pu~ putr son ikMtu kintu but

/u:/ (high back rounded long vowel): }na u:n wool saUd su:d interestBaalaU bha:lu: bear

/o/ (mid back rounded long vowel): Aaosa os dew raoTI rot �i: bread dao do two

/�/ (lower mid unrounded front vowel)eonak �nak mirror gaOr g�r stranger laO l� tune

/�/ (lower mid rounded back vowel) AaOrt �rat womandaOlat d�lat wealthsaaO s� hundred

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Nasal Vowels

Nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. All the vowels can be nasalized.

/�/ [Mca �c inch ipMjara p�jra: cage

/�:/ [IMT �:t � brick saIMcanaa s�:cna: to irrigate nahIM nah�: no

/�/ BaoMT bh�t� meetingmaoM m� in

/ã/ MAÐgaUza ãgu:t�ha: thumbzMD t �hãd � cold

/ã:/ AaMÐgana ã:gan courtyardmaaÐga mã:g demand maaÐ mã: mother

/�/ ]MÐsa �s ounce mauMÐh m�h face

/�:/ }ÐT �:t � camelsaUMÐGanaa s�:ghna: to smell jaUMÐ j�: louse

/õ/ AaoMz õt�h lip gaaoMd gõd gum sarsaaoM sarsõ mustard

/��/ eoMznaa ��t �hna: to tighten BaOMsa bh��s buffalo maOM m�� I

/������� AaOMQaa ��dha: upside downcaaOMtIsa c��ti:s thiry-fourBaaOM bh���� eyebrow Consonants

Consonants are classified into different groups on the basis of theirmanner and place of articulation. Examples of phonemic consonantal segments of Hindi are presented in minimal or nearminimal pairs. Non-phonemic phonetic segments are alsoexemplified. The examples given below represent their phonetic transcription.

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Stops and Affricates

In the production of stops, air coming out of the lungs is stopped at the point of articulation and then released with plosion. Stops occur at initial, medial, and final positions of words.

/p/ (voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop): pla pal moment kpD,a kapr�a: cloth saaÐp sã:p snake

/ph/ (voiceless aspirated bilabial stop): fla phal fruit safla saphal successful saaf sa:ph clean

/b/ (voiced unaspirated bilabial stop): bala bal strength AMbar ambar sky saba sab all

/bh/ (voiced aspirated bilabial stop): BaalaU bha:lu: bear saBaa sabha: meetinglaaBa la:bh profit

/t/ (voiceless unaspirated dental stop): tar ta:r wire katnaa ka:tna: to spin rat ra:t night

/th/ (voiceless aspirated dental stop): qaalaI tha:li: palate haqaI ha:thi: elephant haqa ha:th hand

/d/ (voiced unaspirated dental stop): drvaaja,a darva:za: doorvadI- vardi: uniform baMd band closed

/dh/ (voiced aspirated dental stop): Qana dhan wealthAaQaa a:dha: half dUQa du:dh milk

/t �/ (voiceless unaspirated retroflex stop): TaokrI t �okri: basket

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kaTnaa ka:t�na: to cutkaoT kot� coat

/t �h/ (voiceless aspirated retroflex stop): zga t �hag cheatimaza[- mit�ha:i: sweets Aaz a:t�h eight

/d �/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex stop): D,alaI d �a:li: branch inaDr nid�ar fearlesssaaMÐD sã:d � bull

/d �h/ (voiced aspirated retroflex stop): Zaola d �hol drum gaZa gad �ha: ditch

/k/ (voiceless unaspirated velar stop): kana ka:n earlakD,I lakr�i: wood naak na:k nose

/kh/ (voiceless aspirated velar stop): Kaodnaa khodna: to digdoKnaa dekhna: to see raK ra:kh ashes

/g/ (voiced unaspirated velar stop): gad-na gardan neck Agar agar if Aaga a:g fire

/gh/ (voiced aspirated velar stop): Gar ghar home saUMÐGanaa s�:ghna: to smell baaGa ba:gh tiger

In the production of affricates, air coming out of the lungs passes with friction when the articulator is released gradually. Affricates occur in the initial, medial and final positions of words.

/c/ (voiceless unaspirated palatal stop): caar ca:r four baccaa bacca: child kaMca kã:c glass

/ch/ (voiceless aspirated palatal affricate): Co che six

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maClaI machli: fish kuC kuch some

/j/ (voiced unaspirated palatal affricate): jaana ja:n life gaajar ga:jar carrot taja ta:j crown

/jh/ (voiced aspirated palatal affricate):JaMDa jhãd �a: flag sauJaava sujha:v suggestion saaÐJa sã:jh evening


There are alveolar and glottal fricatives. They occur at all positions.

/f/ (voiceless labio-dental fricative) f,ja,- farz duty naf,rt nafrat dislike isaf,- sirf only

/s/ (voiceless alveolar fricative): saat sa:t seven sasta sasta: cheap dsa das ten

/z/ (voiced alveolar fricative):ja,baana zaba:n language baaja,ar ba:za:r marketgaja, gaz yard

/�/ (voiceless alveolar fricative): Sak �ak suspicion AaSaa a:�a: hopenaaSa na:� destruction

/x/ (voiceless velar fricative):K,bar xabar news AK,baar axba:r newspaper SaaK, �a:x branch

/h/ (voiceless glottal fricative):haqaI ha:thi: elephant bahar baha:r springrah ra:h way

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There are bilabial, alveolar, and velar nasals. The velar nasal occursin medial and final positions only.

/m/ (voiced bilabial nasal):maaqaa ma:tha: forehead kmara kamra: room Aarama a:ra:m rest

/n/ (voiced alveolar nasal):naak na:k nose laanaa la:na: to bring Qaana dha:n paddy

/n �/ (voiced retroflex nasal)ANau an �u atomp`aNa pra:n � life

/η/ (voiced velar nasal):rMganaa raηna: to dyerMga raη color


There is a voiced alveolar trill which occurs in all positions.

/r/ (voiced alveolar trill): rssaI rassi: rope nama- narm soft tar ta:r wire


/r�/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex flap): saD,k sar�ak road BaID, bhi:r� crowd

/r�h/ (voiced aspirated retroflex flap): pZ,naa par�hna: to read QaaZ, dha:r�h jaw

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There is a voiced alveolar lateral which occurs in all positions.

/l/ (voiced alveolar lateral):laaoga log people klaa kala: art jaala ja:l net


/v/ (voiced labio-dental semi-vowel): vaada va:da: promise dvaa[- dava:i: medicine naava na:v boat

/y/ (voiced palatal semi-vowel): yaad ya:d memory saayaa sa:ya: shade raya ra:y opinion Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones

The retroflex voiced aspirated stop Z /d �h/ does not occur in the final position of words. The velar nasal = /η/, and the retroflex flaps D,/r�/and Z, /r�h/ do not occur in the word-initial positions.

The nasal phoneme na /n/ has dental, retroflex, palatal, and velar allophones: na [n], Na [n �], and = [η]. Palatal and velar nasals are not assigned any phonemic status in Hindi. Phonetically they are pronounced in the speech only when they are followed by palataland velar voiced consonant phonemes. They occur before hom*organic voiced consonants.

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2.2. Phonotactics

2.2.1. Vowel Sequences

In Hindi only two vowel sequences are permissible.

ai: naa[- nai: new ia: idAa dia: lampie cailae calie let�s go ui: sau[- sui: needle uã: kuÐAa kuã: welloi: rao[- roi: wept oe Kaoe khoe lost

2.2.2. Consonant Clusters Word-initial Consonant Clusters

Word-initial consonant clusters are not as frequent as the word-medial consonant clusters.

ky @yaa kya: what kr k`ma kram order gy gyaarh gya:rah eleven gr ga`Mqa granth bookjy jyaoYz jye�t�h elder jv jvar jvar fever t �r T/ona t �ren train d �y D\yaaoDa d �yod�a: two and a half times d �r D/amaa d �ra:ma: drama ty %yaaga tya:g sacrificetv %vacaa tvaca: skin dhy Qyaana dhya:n attention py Pyaar pya:r love pr pRqvaI prithvi: earth br ba`h\maa bramha: Brahmaby byaah bya:h marriage�y Syaama �ya:m Shyam �r Eama �ram labor sv Svaasa �va:s breath

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sy syaar sya:r jackalzy j,yaada zya:da: morenr naR%ya nraty dance ny nyaaya nya:y justice mr maRga mrig deer vy vyai@t vyakti person hr )dya hriday heart

Initial three-consonant clusters

str s~I stri: womanskr sk``Ina skri:n screensmr smaRit smriti: remembrance Word-medial Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters occur frequently in the medial position. Most of these clusters are formed across syllable or morpheme boundaries. There are some restrictions in the formation of consonant clusters asfollows: (i) two aspirated consonants do not combine to form a consonant cluster, (ii) /ch/ is not combined to form a consonantcluster, (iii) /d�/ does not occur as the second member of a consonant cluster. Examples of the consonant clusters are given below.

pt kPtana kapta:n captain ps vaapsaI va:psi: return fs Afsaaosa afsos sorry fl gaF,lat gaflat mistakefr naF,rt nafrat hate fv AF,vaa afva: rumorbn Sabnama �abnam dew bz sabja,I sabzi: vegetable tm Aa%maa a:tma: soul dt bad\tr badtar very baddm badmaaSa badma:� rougekb ma@baUla makbu:l popularkt ma@tba maktab school kt� A@Tr akt�ar actor kd h@,dar hakda:r rightful owner/entitled kr [k,rar ikra:r acceptance

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ks nau@saana nuksa:n loss gv Bagavaana bhagva:n God ck Acakna ackan a long button-up coat mb AMbar ambar sky md namda namda: a carpetmjh samJanaa samjhna: to understand mv hmvaar hamva:r smooth nd AMdr andar inside nt� gaMTI gant�i: a bell nd� zMD,a thãd �a: cold nkh pMKa pãkha: fan nj rMijaSa rãji� anger ns [Msaaf insa:ph justice nz maMija,la manzil destination nv jaanavar ja:nvar birdsp Asptala aspata:l hospital sb ksbaa kasba: town st sasta sasta: cheap sd hsdI hasdi: jealous sv tsvaIr tasvi:r picture �t kuStI ku�ti: wrestling �m duSmana du�man enemy�v irSvat ri�vat bribe lt galtI galti: mistake lt � ]lTa ult�a: oppositelk hlka halka: light in weight lm if,lmaI filmi: related to film ls AalsaI a:lsi: lethargic lz mauilja,ma mulzim accusedrb gauba-t gurbat poverty rd gad-na gardan neck rx karK,anaa ka:rxa:na: factory rz maja,I- marzi: consent rh sarhd sarhad frontier rv drvaaja,a darva:za: doorzm Aaja,maanaa a:zma:na: to try hb rhbar rahbar guideht maaohtaja mohta:j dependenths thsaIla tahsi:l tehsil ( subdivision)hl maaohllaa mohlla: mohalla (dwelling ward)

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yd paayadar pa:yda:r strongyv pyavaMd payvand grafting

Medial three consonant clusters

mjhn samaJanaa samjhna: to understand pgr ]pga`h upgrah satellite tpr ]%p`aoxa utprok� metaphor tthr p%qarIlaa patthri:la: stony cct ]ccata uccta: heightk�p pxapat pak�pa:t partiality jjv ]jjala ujjval brightndr And$naI andru:ni: internal ndhk AMQakar andhka:r darkness ndg baMdgaI bandgi: worship nsk saMskar sanska:r ritesndn vaMdnaa vandna: prayernyv Qanyavaad dhanyva:d thanks rtk nat-kI nartki: dancer (f) rkht maUK-ta mu:rkhta: foolishness rmc kma-caaarI karmca:ri worker r�n dSa-naIya dar�ni:y worth seeing rvj saava-jainak sa:rvjanik publicsyt sadsyata sadasyta: membership stm Asqamaa asthma: breathing problem�t �r raYT/Iya ra:�t�ri:y national

Medial four-consonant clusters

ntrt svatM~ta svatantrta: independence ndrv pMd`hvaaÐ pandhrva: fifteenth Word-final Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters occur less frequently in the word-final position.

pp gaPp gapp gossip pn svaPna svapn dream tm K,%ma xatm finish tn ya%na yatn try

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t �t �h laT\z lat�t �h stick cc ]cca ucc highcch svacC svacch cleankt r@t rakt bloodmp lamp lamp lampnt sant sant saint nk baMk bank banknkh SaMK �ankh conch st mast mast carefree�t gaSt ga�t take a round�t � kYT ka�t � troublerth Aqa- arth meaning rkh maUK- mu:rkh fool

Final three-consonant clusters

ntr maM~ mantr hymnndr [Md` indr name of God str As~ astr weapon

2.2.3. Syllable Structure

Hindi has a (C)(C)V(C)(C) syllable structure. The assignment of themedial units to syllables does not depend on morphological structure. The first consonant of the medial cluster is assigned to the preceding syllable and the remaining elements of the unit to the following syllable. In the following examples, the syllable boundaryis marked with [+] sign.

nak\ + Saa na@Saa nak+�a: nak�a: mapsauna\ + dr sauMdr sun+dar sundar beautiful iksa\ + mat iksmat kis+mat kismat fate

The vowel-initial syllables are found only in the initial position of words.

AakaSa a:ka:� sky AmaRt amrit nectar[maart ima:rat building[laaja ila:j treatment

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There are different types of syllables.

Monosyllable:maaÐ mã: mothercaaya ca:y tea Gar ghar house

Di-syllable: fa,yada fa:ida: profitSaaolaa �ola: flame kagaja, ka:gaz paper

Tri-syllable:nasaIyat nasi:hat advice ihrasat hira:sat arresthkIkt haki:kat fact

Quadra-syllable: ihMdustanaI hindusta:ni: Indianmaukabalaa muka:bila: competition [Msaainayat insa:niyat humanity

2.3. Suprasegmental Features

Nasalization, length, stress, intonation, and juncture aresuprasegmental features.

2.3.1. Nasalization

Nasalization is an important suprasegmental feature in Hindi. All the vowels can be nasalized. Nasalization is distinctive so it has phonemic status.

saasa sa:s mother-in-law saaÐsa sã:s breath kaTa ka:t�a: cut kaMÐTa kã:t�a: thornpUC pu:ch ask pUMÐC p�:ch tail gaaod god lap gaaoMd gõd gum qaI thi: was qaIM th�: were

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2.3.2. Length

Length is phonemic in Hindi. There are three pairs of short and longvowels: /i/ and /i:/; /a/ and /a:/; /u/ and /u:/. The following minimalpairs illustrate the contrast in the length of these vowels.

imala mil mix maIla mi:l mile dsa das ten dasa da:s servant ]na un they (obl) }na u:n wool

2.3.3. Stress

Stress is not a distinctive feature of Hindi; it is not in phonemiccontrast. Hindi is a syllable-timed language, sometimes individual words are stressed for emphasis only. Usually, the syllablepreceding the consonant cluster gets stress.

bauiw buddhi intelligence sa%ya saty truth

The initial cluster of the word also gets stress.

p`oma prem love spYTta spa�t �ta: clarity

In di-syllabic words where both syllables have long or short vowels, the first syllable is stressed.

A@sar aksar alwaysAMdr andar inside Aakar a:ka:r figure Aasamaana a:sma:n sky

In di-syllable words wherein the first syllable contains low front orback vowels, the first syllable is stressed.

f,aOjaI f�ji: soldier kOdI k�di: prisoner

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The second syllable is stressed when the first syllable has a short vowel and the second has a long vowel.

nasaIba nasi:b fate iktaba kita:b book

In tri-syllable words, the first syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a long vowel, the second has a short vowel, and the third has a long vowel.

baohyaa behaya: shamelessbaovakUf bevaku:ph stupid

The last syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a short vowel and the last two have long vowels.

ihMdustana hindusta:n India banajaara banja:ra: nomad

In words of more than three syllables, the stress is always on thepenultimate syllable.

samaJadarI samajhda:ri: understanding

2.3.4. Intonation

There are four major types of intonational patterns: (1) high-fall, (2) high-rise, (3) rise-and-fall, (4) mid-level. Intonations have syntactic rather than emotional content. Statements have a high-fall intonation pattern. Intonation peaks are generally positioned on the penultimate word or on the negative particle if there is one.

1. vah iktaba pZ, rha hO. vah kita:b par�h raha: h�. he book read-pr is He is reading a book.

2. kagaja, AlamaarI maoM nahIM hMO. ka:gaz alma:ri: m� nah�: h��papers almirah in neg are The papers are not in the almirah.

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Yes-no questions and tag questions have a high-rise intonation.

3. @yaa vah kla Aayaa? kya: vah kal a:ya:? Q he yesterday came-QDid he come yesterday?

Information questions have a rise-and-fall intonation. The rise in intonation is registered on the question word and the fall is attained gradually.

4. Aap kba baaja,ar gae?a:p kab ba:za:r gaye? you when market went When did you go to the market?

5. maaohna iksasao imalaa?mohan kisse mila:? Mohan who-dat met-3s Who did Mohan meet?

Commands generally follow the mid-level intonational pattern.

6. drvaaja,a baMd krao. darva:za: band karo.door close do-impClose the door.

Contrastive and Emphatic Intonation

The contrastive and emphatic intonations are the same as theyemploy more than the average stress on the constituents of a sentence. The element to be contrasted carries a slightly higher stress than the emphasized segment. For example, any of the elements can be emphasized in the following sentence depending on the degree of emphasis. The emphasis is indicated by bolding different elements.

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7a. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie. you Delhi go-fu-2p

You go to Delhi.

7b. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie.You go to Delhi.

7c. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie.

You go to Delhi.

2.3.5. Juncture

Juncture is functional in Hindi. Internal juncture may be consideredas phonemic juncture. Mostly, the medial clusters have juncture because those sequences of sounds do not occur in the same syllable.

mauiSkla mu�kil difficult Anajaana anja:n ignorantkuta- kurta: shirt badmaaSa badma:� rogue

The following minimal pairs indicate the phonemic status of internal juncture:

Kanaa kha:na: foodKa + naa kha: + na: to eat klaa[- kala:i: wristkla + Aa[- kal + a:i: came yesterday isaka- sirka: vinegar isar + ka sir + ka: of the head

There are two types of juncture: (i) internal juncture and (ii)external juncture. The internal juncture (+) reduces words into phrases or compound words in the sentences.

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8a. ija,MdgaI + maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaazindagi: + m�t ka: kya: bharosa:life death-gen what guarantee There is no guarantee of life or death.

External juncture (#) occurs between each word and the words joined by this juncture retain their separate identity.

8b. ija,MdgaI # maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaazindagi: # m�t ka: kya: bharosa: There is no guarantee of life or death.

2.4. Morphophonemics

Various morphological processes can be marked as loss, addition, and replacement of phonemes.

2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme

The vowel /a/ in the last syllable is dropped when the suffix /-õ/ is added to the word.

AaOrt �rat womanAaOrtaoM �ratõ women (obl) pagala pa:gal madpagalaaoM pa:glõ mad persons (obl)

The consonant na /n/ of a numeral system is lost before any numeral suffix beginning with /t t-, r r-, h h-/ is added.

tIna ti:n three + rh rah ten marker = torh terah thirteen

2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme

The vowel e /-e/ is added to the root before the suffixes are added toit.

itr tir + pna pan = itropna tirepan fifty-three itr tir + saz sat�h = itrosaz tiresat�h sixty-three

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When different suffixes are added to the root, the an addition of a consonant takes place.

ba ba + tIsa ti:s = batIsa batti:s thirty-two Sak �ak + [- i: = SakI �aki: one who doubts

2.4.3. Alternations

The long vowel Aao /o/ of the verb root changes to a short vowel ]/u/ when the suffix -laa /-la:/ is added to the verb roots.

Kaola khol open + laa la: = Kulaa khula: opened rao ro weep + laa la: = Élaa rula: to make weep?

The long vowel [- /i:/ of the verb root becomes the short [ /i/ when the suffix A -a: is added to the verb root.

pI pi: drink + laa la: = ipla pila: make drink saIK si:kh learn + Aa a: = isaKa sikha: teach

When the suffixes laa /-la:/ or Aa /-a:/ are attached to themonosyllabic verbal stems their vowels e /e/ and Aa /a:/ change into[ /i/.

do de give + laa la: = idlaa dila: cause to give Ka kha: eat + laa la: = iKlaa khila: cause to eatdoK dekh see + Aa a: = idKa dikha: cause to see

In certain morphophonemic changes, some consonants are replaced by others.

tIna ti:n three + pna pan = itropna trepan fifty-three [k ik one + caalaIsa ca:li:s = [ktalaIsa ikta:li:s forty-one

Morphophonemic changes at junctural points or sandhi are very common in Hindi. They usually takes place in compound words.

saUya- su:ryasun

+ Aaid a:di etc.

= saUya-aid su:rya:di sun and the like.

caMd` candr moon

+ ]dya udayrise

= caMd`aodya candroday moonrise

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3. Morphology

This chapter deals with the morphological structure of different word classes, describing their inflectional and derivational forms.Word classes described include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections.

3.1. Nouns

3.1.1. Noun Inflection

Nouns in Hindi are inflected for gender, number, and case. There are three declensions of nouns; Declension I includes Aa /a:/ endingmasculine nouns; Declension II includes all other masculine nouns;and Declension III includes all feminine nouns. Gender

There are two genders in Hindi: masculine and feminine. Besidesthe natural gender of animate nouns, every inanimate noun is assigned a gender. Though the gender of a large number ofinanimate nouns can be predicted by their endings, there are no hard and fast rules for assigning the genders. Masculine forms aretraditionally taken as basic. The gender formation involves (a) suffixation, (b) phonological changes, and (c) suppletion. We can make some general observations as follows.

(i) Most of the Aa /a:/ ending masculine nouns have their feminine forms ending in [- /i:/.

laD,ka lar�ka: boy laD,kI lar�ki: girl caacaa ca:ca: uncle caacaI ca:ci: aunt iballaa billa: he cat iballaI billi: she catbaccaa bacca: child (m) baccaI bacci: child (f) dada da:da: father�s father dadI da:di: father�s mother naanaa na:na: mother�s father naanaI na:ni: mother�s mother saalaa sa:la: wife�s brother saalaI sa:li: wife�s sister pgalaa pagla: a mad man pgalaI pagli: a mad woman

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In the above examples, the final -Aa /-a:/ in the masculine nouns is replaced by - [- /-i:/ in their feminine forms.

(ii) Most of the - [- /-i:/ ending animate masculine nouns have their feminine forms ending in -Ana /-an/.

Masculine Feminine QaaobaI dhobi: washerman Qaaobana dhoban washerwomantolaI teli: oilman tolana telan oilwoman maalaI ma:li: gardener (m) maalana ma:lan gardener (f) jaaogaI jogi: saint (m) jaaogana jogan saint (f)

(iii) Some nouns ending in - Aa /-a:/ form their feminine (diminutive) by replacing -Aa /-a:/ with - [yaa /-iya:/.

Dbaa d �aba: box iDibayaa d �ibiya: a small box

(iv) Most of the -Aa /-a:/ ending inanimate nouns are masculine and -[- /-i:/ ending inanimate nouns are feminine.

Masculine Feminine pMKa pankha: fan pMKI pankhi: a small fan saaoTa sot �a: a big stick saaoTI sot �i: a small stick kTaora kat�ora: a bowl kTaorI kat�ori: a small bowl kaoza kot�ha: a room kaozrI kot�hri: a small room

In the above examples, the final -Aa /a:/ in the masculine forms isreplaced by the suffix -[- /i:/.

(v) The suffix -naI /-ni:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the feminine.

Masculine Feminine Saor �er lion SaornaI �erni: lioness maaor mor peaco*ck maaornaI morni: peahen maasTr ma:st�ar teacher (m) maasTrnaI ma:st�arni: teacher (f)}ÐT �:t � camel }ÐTnaI �:t �ni: she-camelnaaOkr n�kar servant (m) naaOkranaI n�kra:ni: servant (f)

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(vi) The suffix -[- /-i:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the feminine.

Masculine Feminine dasa da:s servant dasaI da:si: maidpu~ putr son pu~I putri: daughtersauMdr sundar beautiful sauMdrI sundri: beautiful woman Number

There are two numbers: singular and plural.

(i) The -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns (including pronouns and adjectives), with a few exceptions change into -e /-e/ ending forms in the plural.

Singular Plural laD,ka lar�ka: boy laD,ko lar�ke boysGaaoD,a gho:r�a: horse GaaoD,o ghor�e horsesmaora mera: my maoro mere mykalaa ka:la: black kalao ka:le black

The following -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns do not change intheir plural form.

ipta pita: father/fathers naota neta: leader/leadersdiryaa dariya: river/rivers

(ii) All other consonant and/or other vowel-ending nouns do not change in their plural forms.

maaor mor peaco*ck(s)kaoT kot� coat(s)ga`ama gra:m village(s) haqaI ha:thi: elephant(s) Émaala ruma:l handkerchief/handkerchiefsQaaoobaI dhobi: laundry man/ laundry men

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(iii) The feminine plurals are formed by adding the suffix -eM /�/ tothe consonant-ending singular forms.

iktaba kita:b book iktabaoM kita:b� booksmaoja, mez table maoja,oM mez� tables gaaya ga:y cow gaayaoM ga:y� cows

(iv) The plural suffix -[yaaÐ -iyã: is added to the -[-M -i: ending feminine nouns.

laD,kI lar�ki: girl + [yaaÐ -iyã: = laD,ikyaaÐ lar�kiyã: girls kusaI- kursi: chair + [yaaÐ -iyã: = kuisa-yaaÐ kursiyã: chairskhanaI kaha:ni: story + [yaaÐ -iyã: = khainayaaÐ kaha:niyã: stories

Notice that when the suffix is added the final vowel of the stem is deleted. Case

The syntactic and semantic functions of noun phrases are expressed by case-suffixes, postpositions and derivational processes. There aretwo cases: direct and oblique. Case-suffixes and postpositions are used to express syntactic and semantic functions. Case suffixes aredefined as bound suffixes, which do not occur independently as words and are added only to the noun phrases. Case suffixes addedto the oblique forms of nouns agreeing in number and gender.

Case Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

Direct Ø Ø Ø Ø Oblique -e -e -AaoM -õ -[ -i -AaoM -õVocative -e -e -Aao -o -[ -i -Aao -o

The vocative address forms may be preceded by the vocativemorphemes Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are. The role of case-suffixes and postpositions is explained in the paradigms of laD,ka lar�ka: �boy� and laD,kI lar�ki: �girl� given below.

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Case Noun + Marker Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

Direct laD,ka laD,ko laD,kI laD,ikyaaÐlar�ka: lar�ke lar�ki: lar�kiyã:

Oblique laD,ko laD,kaoM laD,kI laD,ikyaaoMlar�ke lar�kõ lar�ki: lar�kiyõ

Vocative Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD,ko lar�ke Oh boy Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD,kao lar�ko Oh boyse e/ ho he/ Aro are laD,kI lar�ki: Oh girle e/ ho he/ Aro are laD,ikyaao lar�kiyo Oh girls

Case-suffixes followed by postpositions indicate various relationships between the noun phrases and the verb phrases.

3.1.2. Postpositions

Postpositions have specific semantic functions. They express the semantic dimensions of a noun such as benefaction, manner, or location. The main postpositions are: nao ne �ergative marker�; kao ko �to�; ko ilae ke liye �for�; pr par �on�; maoM m� �in�; sao se �from�; sao se �with�; ka /ko /kI ka/ke/ki: �of�.� The postpositions are written as separate words with nouns (Aimat nao amit ne, ]maa kao uma: ko), but they are tagged to pronouns (maOMnao m��ne ]sakao usko, iksaka kiska:). The Postposition nao ne

The postposition nao ne is used with subject noun phrases usually withthe transitive verbs in the past tense. The verb agrees with the object.

1. maOMnao p~ ilaKa.m��ne patr likha:I-erg letter wrote I wrote a letter.

1a. *maOMnao p~ ilaKa. *m�� patr likha:

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2. ]sanao kpD,o Qaaoe.usne kapr�e dhoyehe-erg clothes washedHe washed clothes.

2a. vah kpD,o Qaaoyaa. *vah kapr�e dhoya:

Whenever the objects are followed by the dative postposition kao ko, the verb remains in masculine singular form.

3. maaohna nao baihna /bahnaaoM kao baulaayaa.mohan ne bahin/bahnõ ko bula:ya:Mohan-erg sister/sisters-dat called Mohan called (his) sister/sisters.

4. hmanao laD,ko / laD,kaoM / laD,kI /laD,ikyaaoM kao pZ,ayaa.hamne lar�ke/lar�kõ/lar�ki:/ lar�kiyõ ko par�ha:ya:we-erg boy/boys/girl/girls-dat taughtWe taught the boy/boys/girl/girls.

The nao ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the following transitive verbs: laanaa la:na: �to bring,� Kolanaa khelna: �to play,� baaolanaa bolna: �to speak,� BaUlanaa bhu:lna: �to forget,� and baknaa bakna: �to chatter.�

5. ]maa kmaIja, laa[-.uma: kami:z la:i:

Uma-nom shirt broughtUma brought a shirt.

5a. *]maa nao kmaIja, laa[-.*uma: ne kami:z la:i:

6. laD,ka baaolaa.lar�ka: bola:

boy said The boy said.

6a. *laD,ko nao baaolaa.*lar�ke ne bola:

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7. vah rasta BaUlaa.voh ra:sta: bhu:la:he way forgot He forgot/lost the way.

7a. *]sanao rasta BaUlaa.*usne ra:sta: bhu:la:

8. vah kafI dor baka.vah ka:phi: de:r baka: he-nom lot duration chattered He chattered for a long time.

8a. *]sanao kafI dor baka. *usne ka:phi de:r baka:

The postposition nao ne is used with the following intransitive verbs: CIMknaa ch�:kna: �to sneeze�; KaÐsanaa khã:sna: �to cough�; nahanaa naha:na:�to take a bath�; and qaUknaa thu:kna: �to spit�.

9. ]sanao Gar sao inaklato samaya CIMka.usne ghar se nikalte samay ch�:ka: he-erg house-abl from set out-ptc time sneezedHe sneezed as he was leaving the house.

10. baImaar vyai@t ³nao o ja,aor sao KaÐsaa. bi:ma:r vyakti (ne) zo:r se khã:sa:ill person-erg loudly coughed The ill person coughed loudly.

11. maOMnao garma panaI sao nahayaa. m��ne garm pa:ni: se naha:ya:I-erg hot water with bathed I took a bath in hot water.

12. tumanao saD,k pr @yaaoM qaUka?tumne sar�ak par kyõ thu:ka:?you-erg road on why spit-past Why did you spit on the road?

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It is not used in constructions using the modal verbs laganaa lagna:, cauknaacukna:, and saknaa sakna::

13. vah saoba Kanao lagaa.vah seb kha:ne laga:he apple eat-inf-obl started He started eating apples.

13a. *]sanao saoba Kanao lagaa. *usne seb kha:ne laga:

14. maOM yah kama kr cauka.m�� yah ka:m kar cuka: I this work do completedI finished this work.

14a. *maOMnao yah kama kr cauka. *m��ne yah ka:m kar cuka:

15. vah icaT\zI ilaK saka.vah cit�t�hi: likh saka:he letter write could He could write a letter.

15a. *]sanoa icaT\zI ilaK saka. *usne cit�t�hi: likh saka:

In the case of a few transitive verbs like samaJanaa samjhna: �to understand� and Kolanaa khelna: �to play,� the use of this postposition is optional.

16. maOMnao ]sakI baat samaJaI. m��ne uski: ba:t samjhi:I-erg his/her matter understoodI understood what he said.

16a. maOM ]sakI baat samaJaa. m�� uski: ba:t samjha.:I his/her matter understoodI understood what he said.

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17. maOM samaJaa vah baImaar hO.m�� samjha: voh bi:ma:r h�. I understood he sick is I thought he was sick.

17a. maOMnao samaJaa vah baImaar hO.m��ne samjha: voh bi:ma:r h�.

18. vah hakI Kolaa. vah ha:ki: khe:la:. he hockey playedHe played hockey.

18a. ]sanao hakI KolaI.usne haki: khe:li:.he-erg hockey playedHe played hockey.

The use of the postposition nao ne is invariably found in compound verb constructions with the verb samaJanaa samjhna: �to understand� as the main verb.

19. maOMnao baat samaJa laI.m��ne ba:t samajh li:I-erg matter understand took I understood the matter.

19a. *maOM baat samaJa laI.*m�� ba:t samajh li: The Postposition kao ko

The postposition kao ko is used in different types of sentences and isplaced after nouns. It is optional when used with object nouns which are followed by conjunct verbs with an adjective or adverb and the verb.

1. maoja, (kao) saaf krao.mez (ko) sa:f karotable (dat) clean do-imp Clean the table.

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2. ,kama (kao) K%ma krao.ka:m (ko) xatm karowork (dat) finish do-imp Finish the work.

3. kar (kao) toja, krao.ka:r (ko) tez (dat) fast do-impSpeed up the car.

4. kagaja, (kao) dUr rKaoo.ka:gaz (ko) du:r rakho.paper (dat) away do-imp Keep the paper away.

5. saMdUk (kao) [Qar/ ]Qar/ }pr/ naIcao rKaoo.sandu:k (ko) idhar/udhar/upar/ni:ce rakhobox (dat) here/there/up/down do-imp Keep the box here/there/up/down.

In the object +kao ko+verb construction, the verb may be transitive orcausative.

6. maOMnao p~ (kao) pZ,a.m��ne patr (ko) par�ha:I-erg letter (dat) readI read the letter.

7. ]sanao iktaba kao baocaa.usne kita:b ko beca: he-erg book-dat soldHe sold the book.

7a. ]sanao iktaba baocaI.usne kita:b beci: He sold the book.

8. ]sanao baccao kao saulaayaa.usne bacce ko sula:ya:he-erg child-dat sleep-caus He made the child sleep.

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8a. ]sanao baccaa saulaayaa.usne bacca: sula:ya:

In the subject + kao ko + complement + verb constructions, the verbs express the state of mind, physical experience, involuntarily actions,feelings, obligations, and emotions (9-12).

9. saunaIta kao bauKar hO.suni:ta ko bhukha:r h�Sunita-dat fever is Sunita has fever.

10. Amar kao duK huAa.amar ko dukh hua:Amar-dat pain felt Amar felt pain.

11. maaohna kao KaÐsaI Aa[-.mohan ko hãs�: a:i:Mohan-dat laugh came

Mohan laughed.

12. baccao kao Dr lagaa.bacce ko d �ar laga:child-dat fear struck The child was afraid.

The postposition kao ko is used in the secondary object + kao ko + main object + verb constructions.

13. maOM Apnao Baa[- kao p~ ilaK rha hUM.m�� apne bha:i: ko patr likh raha: h�: I self-obl brother-dat letter write-prog am I am writing a letter to my brother.

Pronouns + kao ko have alternate forms as follows:

vah vah + kao ko = ]sakao/ ]sao usko/use yah yah + kao ko = [sakao/ [sao isko/ise [na in + kao ko = [nakao/ [nhoM inko/inh�]na un + kao ko = ]nakao/ ]nhoM unko/unh�

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In the ]sao use/[sao ise/[nhoM inh�/]nhoM unh� forms, there is an inherent kao ko. It is possible to use these forms along with nouns + kao ko.

14. ]sao/]nhoM maaohna kao do dao.use/unh� mohan ko de do.that/those-dat Mohan-dat give-impGive that/those to Mohan.

15. [sao lao jaaAao.ise le ja:o.

this-dat take-imp Take this.

The postposition kao ko is not normally used with time adverbials.

16. vah Aaja Aaegaa.vah a:j a:ega:. he today come-fut He will come today.

16a. *vah Aaja kao Aaegaa.*vah a:j ko a:ega:

17. vah kla jaaegaa.vah kal ja:ega:.

he tomorrow go-fut He will go tomorrow.

17a. *vah kla kao jaaegaa.*vah kal ko ja:ega:.

But in certain contexts, kao ko can be used with kla kal, not to indicate �tomorrow,� but to denote an indefinite time in the future.

18. kaOna jaanao kla kao @yaa haogaa.k�n ja:ne kal ko kya: hoga:. who know-obl tomorrow-obl what happen-fut Who knows what will happen tomorrow?

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19. Agar kla kao ]nhoM kuC hao gayaa tao� agar kal ko unh� kuch ho gaya: to�if tomorrow-obl he-obl something happenened then � If anything happens to him tomorrow then �

The postposition kao ko can be used optionally with time adverbs, like rat ra:t �night,� Saama �a:m �evening,�and duphr dupahar �afternoon.�

20. Aaja Saama/Saama kao Aap maoro Gar Aa[e.a:j �a:m/�a:m ko a:p mere ghar a:iye. today evening/-dat you mine house come-imp.pol Please come to my house today in the evening.

The postposition kao ko is not used with place adverbs like yahaÐ yahã:�here�; vahaÐ vahã: �there�; }pr upar �above�; naIcao ni:ce �under�; Aagao a:ge �in front�; and pICo pi:che �behind.�

21. maOM yahaÐM Aa}Ðgaa. m�� yahã: a:�:ga:

I here come-fut I will come here.

21a. *maOM yahaÐ kao Aa}Ðgaa.*m�� yahã: ko a:�:ga:

22. vao }pr phuÐ u:par pah�ce they top reached They reached up (the stairs).

22a. *vao }pr kao phuMÐcao.*ve u:par ko pah�ce

The postposition kao ko is added to the subject noun/pronoun if it is followed by an object and the verb caaihe ca:hiye �need/want� or the modal �should� (i.e., subject + kao ko + object + caaihe ca:hiya).

23. ]sakao yah AKbaar caaihe.usko yeh akhba:r ca:hiye he-obl this newspaper wants He wants this newspaper.

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24. ]sakao yah kama krnaa caaihe.usko yah ka:m karna: ca:hiyehe-obl this work do-inf shouldHe should do this work.

The verbal noun + kao ko (as complementizer) construction showspurpose.

25. ]sao Aanao kao khao.use a:ne ko kaho.he-dat come-inf-obl tell-imp Tell him to come.

26. ]znao kao idla krta hO.ut�hne ko dil karta: h�rise-inf-obl pp heart want-ptc be One would like to get up.

27. hma dF,tr jaanao kao tOyaar hMO.ham daftar ja:ne ko t�ya:r h�. �we office go-inf-obl pp ready are We are ready to go to the office.

28. Aapko pasa pInao kao @yaa hO?a:pke pa:s pi:ne ko kya: h�?you-gen-obl near drink-inf-obl pp what isWhat do you have to drink?

The postposition kao ko can be used for emphasis as well.

29. jaanao kao @yaa, maOM kBaI BaI jaa sakta hUÐ.ja:ne ko kya:, m�� kabhi: bhi: ja: sakta: h�:.go-inf-obl dat what, I anytime go can be What is there, I can go anytime.

kao ko can also be used to denote an object of a verb requiring apredicate.

30. Aimat garIbaI kao pap samaJata hO.amit gari:bi: ko pa:p samajhta: h�.

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Amit poverty sin consider-ptc is Amit considers poverty a sin.

31. kpD,aoM kao gaMda mat krao.kapr�õ: ko ganda: mat karo.clothes dirty neg do-imp Don�t dirty your clothes.

It is used to denote time. When it is used with time adverbials itdenotes specificity like daophr kao dopahar ko or maMgalavaar kao maηalva:r kobut not janavarI kao janva:ri ko or Aaja kao a:j ko, kla kao kal ko.

32. vah daophr kao Aaegaa.vah dopahar ko a:yega:. he noon come-fut He will come at noon.

33. maOM maMgalavaar kao idllaI jaa}Ðgaa.m�� maηalva:r ko dilli: ja:�:ga:.I Tuesday Delhi go-fut I�ll go to Delhi on Tuesday. The Postposition sao se

The postposition sao se is used to indicate association or mutual dealing.

1. maOM ]sasao baat krta hUÐ.m�� us-se ba:t kar-ta: h�:.I he-obl-with talk do-ptc amI talk with him.

2. vah pD,aosaI sao laD,a.vah par�osi: se lar�a:.he neighbor with quarreled He quarreled with his neighbor.

3. naohÉ baccaaoM sao Pyaar krto qao.nehru: baccõ se pya:r karte the.Nehru children-obl with love do-ptc was Nehru used to love children.

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4. mauJasao JaUz na baaolaao.mujh-se jhu:t�h na lie neg say-imp Don�t lie to me.

5. ]sasao maja,ak na krao.usse maza:k na karo. he-obl-post joke don�t do-impDon�t joke with him.

6. vah pD,aosaI sao nafrt krta hO.vah par�osi: se nafrat karta: h�.he neighbor with hate do-ptc is He hates his neighbor.

7. maOM Aapsao p`aqa-naa krta hUÐ. m�� a:pse pra:rthna: karta: h�:.I you-post request do-ptc am I request you.

8. sarkar sao maaÐga kI jaatI hO.sarka:r se mã:g ki: ja:ti: h�. government with request do aux isThe government is requested.

9. maOM eosao laaogaaoM sao dUr rhnaa psaMd krta hUР.m�� �se log�: se du:r rahna: pasand karta: h�:.I this type people from far remain-inf like do-ptc am I like to be away from this kind of people.

It is used to indicate a sense of separation or keeping away from something.

10. idla sao k`aoQa inakalaao.dil se krodh nika:loheart from anger remove-impRemove anger from your mind.

11. vah dF,tr sao inaklaa.vah daftar se nikla:.

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he office from came out He set out from the office.

It represents cause, reason and origin.

12. vah bauKar sao kmaja,aor huAa.vah bukha:r se kamzor hua:. he fever from weak became He became weak by fever.

13. baIja sao paOQaa inaklata se p�dha: nikalta: h�. seed from plant comes out The plant grows out of a seed.

14. baat sao baat inaklatI se ba:t nikalti: h�.talk from talk comes out One thing comes out of the other.

15. lakD,I sao maojaoM, banatI hOM.lakr�i: se meze� banti: h���.wood from tables make-ptc are The tables are made of wood.

16. imaT\TI sao bat-na banato �t �i: se bartan bante h�.�clay from pots make-ptc are Pots are made of clay.

It indicates the starting point, place, time, and direction.

17. mauJao dF,tr sao tar imalaa .mujhe daftar se ta:r mila:. I-obl office from telegram gotI got a telegram from the office.

18. yahaÐ sao Sahr bahut dUr hO.yahã: se �ahar bahut du:r h�. here from city very far is The city is far away from here.

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19. kla sao Aaja AcCI QUp hO.kal se a:j acchi: dhu:p h�. yesterday from today good sunshine is It is more sunny today than yesterday.

It indicates time.

20. vah dor sao gayaa. vah der se gaya.: he late wentHe went late.

It is used to indicate the difference or comparison in quality and quantity.

21. vahaÐ sao yahaÐ AiQak garmaI pD,tI hO.vahã: se yahã: adhik garmi: par�ti: h�.there from here more heat fall-ptc is This place is hotter than that place.

22. vah dao saala sao baImaar hO.vah do sa:l se bi:ma:r h�. he two year from sick isHe has been sick for the last two years.

23. pICo sao Aavaja, Aa[-.pi:che se a:va:z a:yi:. behind from call came Someone called from behind.

It is used to indicate means, instrument, or agency.

24. caakU sao sabja,I se sabzi: ka:t �o.knife with vegetable cut-impCut vegetables with the knife.

25. klama sao p~ ilaKao.kalam se patr likho. pen with letter write-impWrite a letter with the pen.

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26. hma haqa sao Kanaa Kato hOM.ham ha:th se kha:na: khate h���.we hand with food eat-ptc are We eat our meals with our hands.

27. paOQaaoM kao panaI sao Qaao laao.p�dhõ: ko pa:ni: se dho lo.plants-obl to water with wash-impWash the plants with water.

28. vah baairSa sao BaIga gayaa.vah ba:ri� se bhi:g gaya: he rain with wet became He was drenched in the rain.

29. ]sanao A@la sao kama ikyaa.usne akl se ka:m kiya:he-erg wit with work did He worked with wit.

It indicates manner.

30. maorI baat Qyaana sao saunaao.meri: ba:t dhya:n se talk attention with listen-impListen to what I say with attention.

31. vah toja,I sao Aayaa.vah tezi: se a:ya:. he fast cameHe came fast.

32. hma kiznaa[- sao sToSana phuÐcaoo.ham kat �hina:yi: se st�e�an pah�ce. we difficulty with station reachedWe reached the station with difficulty.

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52 The Postposition maoM m�

The postposition maoM m� is used to denote location or presence of something in or within; duration; price; comparison with reference to more than two; or difference.

Location1. maora dF,tr idllaI maoM hO.

mera: daftar dilli: m� h�.my office Delhi in isMy office is in Delhi.

2. maora baoTa kalaoja maoM pZ,ta hO.mera: bet�a: ka:lej m� par�hta: h�. my son college in study-ptc is My son studies in college.

3. [sa iktaba maoM tIna saaO pRYT kita:b m� ti:n s� pra�t �h h�. �this book in three hundred pages are There are three hundred pages in this book.

Duration 4. yah laoK maOOMnao caar idna maoM ilaKa.

yah lekh m��ne ca:r din m� likha:. this article I-erg four days in wrote I wrote this article in four days.

5. yah [maart dao saala maoM banaI.yeh ima:rat do sa:l m� bani:. this building two years in constructed This building was constructed in two years.

Price 6. yah maoja, dao hja,ar ÉpyaaoM maoM imalaa.

yah mez do haza:r rupyõ m� mila:.this table two thousand rupees-obl in obtained This table cost two thousand rupees.

7. maOMnao yah kmaIja, tIna saaO ÉpyaaoM maoM laI.m��ne yah kami:z ti:n s� rupyõ m� li:.

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I-erg this shirt three hundred rupees in got I got this shirt for three hundred rupees.

Comparison 8. [na laD,kaoM maoM Aimat sabasao caust hO.

in lar�kõ m� amit sa:bse cust h�. these boys-obl in Amit all from activeAmit is the most active out of all these boys. The Postposition pr par

The postposition pr par is used to denote location or position, point of time of an action, sequence of actions, cause or reason, and theobject of verbs.

Location1. kagaja, maoja, pr hO.

ka:gaz mez par h�.paper table on is The paper is on table.

2. maoro kpD,o Ct pr hOM.mere kapr�e chat par h��. my clothes roof on areMy clothes are on the roof.

3. ]saka dF,tr yahaÐ sao kuC dUrI pr hO.uska: daftar yahã: se kuch du:ri: par h�.his office here from some distance at isHis office is some distance from here.

Point of time 4. vah samaya pr nahIM phuÐcaa.

vah samay par nah�: pah�ca:.he time at not reachedHe didn�t arrive in time.

5. basa caar bajakr dsa imanaT pr AaegaI.bas ca:r bajkar das minat� par a:yegi: bus four stuck-cp ten minutes at come-fut-f The bus will arrive at ten minutes past four.

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Sequence of actions 6. vahaÐ phuÐMcanao pr hmanao doKa ik kao[- nahIM Aayaa.

vahã: pah�cne par hamne dekha: ki koi: nah�: a:ya:.there reach-inf-obl on we-erg saw that no one neg cameOn reaching there, we found that no one had come.

7. naota ko Aanao pr sabanao tailayaaÐ bajaa[-M.neta: ke a:ne par sabne ta:liyã: baja:�:. leader-gen come-inf-obl on all-erg clapped hands Upon the arrival of the leader, all clapped their hands.

Cause or reason 8. QaaooKa donao pr ]sao saja,a hu[-M.

dhokha: dene par use saza: hui:.deceive give-inf-obl on he-obl punishment given He was punished for deceiving (someone).

9.JaUz baaolanao pr maaÐ nao baccao kao DaÐMTa.jhu:t�h bolne par mã:ne bacce ko d �ã:t�a:.lie tell-inf-obl on mother-erg child-dat scolded The mother scolded the child for telling a lie.

Object of verbs 10. garIbaaoM pr dyaa krao.

gari:bõ par daya: karo.poor-obl on mercy do-imp Be kind to the poor.

11. vah iksaI pr k`aoQa nahIM krta.vah kisi: par krodh nah�: karta:.he someone on anger neg do-pr is He doesn�t get angry at anyone.

12. mauJapr ivaSvaasa krao.mujhpar vi�va:s on faith do-impHave faith in me.

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55 The Postposition ka ka

The postposition ka ka: is used to denote the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another noun that follows it. It is used todenote possession and relationship, material or composition, worth and measure, source, origin, cause, subject or object of an act, part of a whole, purpose or characteristics or trait. The form of this postposition agrees with the gender and number of the noun asfollows.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl ka ka: ko ke kI ki kI ki

Possession and relationship 1. Aimat ka Baa[- Aaja Aaegaa.

amit ka: bha:i: a:j a:yega:.Amit of brother today come-fut Amit�s brother will come today.

2. Aimat kI baihna/ baihnaoM kla AaegaI/ AaeÐgao.amit ki: bahn/bahn� kal a:yegi:/a:y�gi:.Amit of sister/sisters tomorrow come-fut-fs/-fp Amit�s sister/sisters will come tomorrow.

3. Aimat ko dao daost prsaaoM AaeMgao.amit ke do dost parsõ a:�ge.Amit of two friends day after tomorrow come-fut Amit�s two friends will come day after tomorrow.

Material or composition4. SaISao kI AlamaarI TUT ga[-.

�i:�e ki: alma:ri: t �u:t � of almirah broke went The glass almirah broke.

5. imaT\TI ko bat-na AcCo �t �i: ke bartan acche h��.clay of pots good are The earthen pots are good.

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Measure or worth 6. ek iklaao caavala iktnao ka hOÆ

ek kilo ca:val kitne ka: h�?one kilogram rice how much-obl of is What is the price of one kilogram of rice?

7. yao dsa Épe ko kolao das rupye ke kele h��.these ten rupees of bananas areThese bananas cost ten rupees.

Source, origin, or cause 8. pomacaMd ko ]pnyaasa yahaÐ nahIM hOM.

premcand ke upnya:s yahã: nah�: h��. Premchand�s novels here neg are The novels of Premchand are not available here.

9. [sa poD, ko fla maIzo per� ke phal mi:t�he h��.this tree gen fruit sweet areThe fruit of this tree is delicious.

Subject (doer of an act) 10. QaaobaI ka kama AcCa hO.

dhobi: ka: ka:m accha: h�.washerman gen work good is The washerman�s work is good.

Object (of an activity) 11. ]sako baccaaoM kI iSaxaa AcCI hO.

uske baccõ ki: �ik�a: acchi: h�. his children-obl of education good isThe education of the children is good.

12. ]sako pasa dvaa[- ka Kcaa- nahIM hO.uske pa:s dava:i: ka: kharca: nah�: h�.he-gen near medicine-gen expenses neg is He doesn�t have money to pay for medicine.

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Part of a whole 13. yah kagaja, ka TukD,a hO.

yeh ka:gaz ka: t�ukr�a: h�. this paper gen piece is This is a piece of paper.

14. yah [sa poD, kI SaaK hO.yeh is per� ki: �a:kh h�. it this tree-gen branch-fs is It is the branch of this tree.

Purpose 14. pInao ka panaI saaf, hO.

pi:ne ka: pa:ni: sa:f h�.drink-obl gen water clean is The drinking water is clean.

Characteristics15. dUQa kI imazasa AcCI hO.

du:dh ki: mit�ha:s acchi: h�.milk gen sweetness good isThe milk is sweet. Compound Postpositions

Compound postpositions are formed by combining the postpositionsko ke, kI ki:, and saose with other words in certain set phrases as follows.

(i) ko ke

ko Alaavaa/Aitir@t ke ala:va:/atirikt in addition to ko Anausaar ke anusa:r according to ko AMdr ke andar inside ko Aagao ke a:ge in front ofko Aarpar ke a:rpa:r through ko Aasapasa ke a:spa:s near about ko baad/]praMt/pScaat ke ba:d/uprã:nt/pa�ca:t afterwardsko par ke pa:r acrossko karNa ke ka:ran � because ofko d\vaara/haqa ke dwa:ra:/ha:th through

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ko pasa/inakT/naja,dIk/samaIp ke pa:s/nikat�/nazdi:k/sami:p near ko }pr ke upar above ko pUva- ke pu:rv before ko p`it ke prati for, toward ko p`itkUla/ivaÉw/ivaprIt ke pratiku:l/virudh/vipri:t against ko ibanaa isavaa/bagaOr ke bina:/siva:/bag�r withoutko badlao ke badle in place of ko barabar/samaana ke bara:bar/sama:n equal ko baahr ke ba:har outside ofko baIca/maQya ke bi:c/madhya inside ofko lagaBaga ke lagbhag aboutko ilae/vaasto ke liye/va:ste for ko yaaogya/laayak ke yogya/la:yak appropriate ko samaot/saaqa ke samet/sa:th along withko saamanao ke sa:mne in front ofko maukabalao (maoM) ke muka:ble (m�) comparison to ko yahaÐ/haÐ ke yahã:/hã: at some place

(ii) kI ki:

kI Aaor/trf ki: or/taraf towards kI Apoxaa ki: apek�a: in comparison withkI trh/BaaÐit ki: tarah/bhã:ti like kI jagah ki: jagah in place of

(iii) sao se

sao baahr se ba:har out ofsao phlao se pahle before

The compound postpositions are employed to express various semantic expressions in combination with other elements. There are, however, alternate ways of expression possible where postpositions are not used. Examples of the usage of various semantic expressionsare given below.

Cause is expressed either by the (i) postposition sao se; or by the (ii) compound forms ko karNa ke ka:ran � �for the reason of,� and rkI Aaor ki: or �side.�

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1. baaZ, sao makana igar�h se maka:n gir gaya:. flood with house fell The house fell down because of the flood.

2. ]sako karNa mauJaoo nau@saana huAa.uske ka:ran � mujhe nuksa:n hua:he-gen-obl reason I-obl loss occurred I had to suffer loss because of him.

3. ]sakI Aaor sao mauJaoo kBaI sauK nahIM imalaa.uski: or se mujhe kabhi: sukh nah�: mila:.he-gen-obl side I-dat ever comfort neg gotHe has never provided comfort to me.

Purpose is expressed by the use of the oblique infinitive verb optionally followed by the postposition ko ilae ke liye �for.�

4. vah sabja,I laonao (ko ilae) baaja,ar gayaa.vah sabzi: lene (ke liye) ba:za:r gaya:.he vegetables bring-inf-obl for market went He went to the market to buy vegetables.

Function is expressed by the genitive postpositional phrase - kI trhki: tarah �like.�

5. vah Cato kao saaoTI kI trh [istmaala krta hO.vah cha:te ko sot�i: ki: tarah istima:l karta: h�.he is umbrella-obl dat stick-gen like use do-pr isHe uses an umbrella like a stick.

Reference is denoted by the postpositional expression ko baaro maoM keba:re m� �about.�

6. ]sanao mauJao Apnao baccaaoM ko baaro maoM kha.usne mujhe apne baccõ ke ba:re m� kaha:. he-erg me self�s children-dat about said He told me about his children.

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7. tumho [sako baaro maoM kaoiSaSa krnaI caaihe.tumhe iske ba:re m� ko�i� karni: ca:hiye. you-obl this-gen-obl for effort do-inf-fs should You should make efforts in this regard.

The compound postposition ko $p/Baosa maoM ke ru:p/bhes m� expresses themeaning �in the form of.�

8. raajaa ek iBaKarI ko Baosa / $p maoM inaklaa. ra:ja: ek bhikha:ri: ke bhes/ru:p m� nikla:.king one beggar-gen-obl in set outThe king went out in the disguise of a beggar.

The compound postposition maoM sao m� se is used to express the sense of �among/out of�.� Numerals and quantifiers occur after the nounmarked maoM sao m� se.

9. ]sako ivaQyaaiqa-yaaoM maoM sao caar kSmaIr maoM hOM.uske vidya:rthiyõ m� se ca:r ka�mi:r m� h��.he-gen-obl students-obl from four Kashmir-abl in are Among his students, four are in Kashmir.

Value is expressed by the genitive or it can be denoted by the expressions kI kImat ki: ki:mat, or ka maUlya ka: mu:ly �the price of X� which precedes the value expression.

10. [sa kmaIja, kI kImat tIna saaO Épe kami:z ki: ki:mat ti:n s� rupye h��.this shirt-gen price three hundred rupees is The price of this shirt is three hundred rupees.

The compound postposition ko baavajaUd ke ba:vaju:d is used to express the meaning of �despite of.�

11. baImaar haonao ko baavajaUd vah kaya-alaya hone ke ba:vaju:d vah ka:rya:lay a:ya:sick be-inf-obl despite he office cameHe came to the office despite being sick.

Inclusion is expressed by the compound postposition ko samaot ke samet/saaqa sa:th �including.�

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12. Aapko samaot saaro Anaupisqat/ gaOrhaija,r qao.a:pke samet sa:re anupasthit/g�rha:zir including all absent were All, including you, were absent.

13. Aapkao imalaakr hma dsa sadsya hOM.a:pko mila:kar ham das sadasy h��.you-dat include-cp we ten members are We are ten members, including you.

Exclusion is expressed by the dative postpositions ko ibanaa ke bina:/ bagaOr bag�r �without.�

14. Amar ko ibanaa/ bagaOr saaro ]pisqat /haija,r qao.amar ke bina:/bag�r sa:re upasthit/ha:zir the Amar-gen without all present were All, excluding/except Amar, were present.

Addition is expressed either by the use of the comitative compound postposition ko saaqa ke sa:th �with/ along with,� or by ko Aitir@t ke atirikt/ Alaavaa ala:va: �in addition to.�

15. maaohna ko saaqa ³saaqa´/Alaavaa ]maa BaI Aa[-.mohan ke sa:th (sa:th)/ala:va: uma: bhi: a:yi: Mohan-gen with /besides Uma too came In addition to Mohan, Uma came too.

Locational semantic functions are generally marked by the postposi-tions kI Aaor ki: or �motion to,� (ko baIca ke bi:c) maoM sao m� se �motionthrough.�

16. vah gaaÐva kI Aaor calaa.vah ga:�: ki: or cala:he village towards set out He set out towards the village.

17. basa gaaÐva (ko baIca) maoM sao gauja,rtI hO.bas ga:�: (ke bi:c) m� se guzarti: h�bus village-abl through passes-pr is The bus passes through the village.

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The approximate location is expressed by ko inakT ke nikat �/ naja,dIk nazdi:k/ krIba kari:b �near.�

18. makana ko inakT/naja,dIk dukana hO.maka:n ke nikat� /nazdi:k duka:n h�. house near shop isThe shop is near the house.

19. vah dF,tr ko naja,dIk tk phuÐcaa.vah daphtar ke nazdi:k tak pah�ca:.he office near up to reachedHe reached up to/ near the house.

20. baccao kI Aavaaja, Gar ko krIba sao Aa[-.bacce ki: a:va:z ghar ke kari:b se a:yi:. child-obl gen voice house-gen near from came The child�s voice came from near the house.

Interior location is expressed by ko AMdr ke andar/ maoM m� �inside of,�orko baIca maoM sao ke bi:c m� se �from inside� preceded by the oblique casesuffixes.

21. [sa makana maoM/ko AMdr kao[- nahIM rhta maka:n m�/ke andar koi: nah�: rahta: h�.this house inside anyone neg live-pr isNo one lives inside this house.

22. baccaa kmaro ko baIca maoM sao inaklaa.bacca: kamre ke bi:c m� se nikla:.child room-abl from came outThe child came out of the house.

Exterior location is denoted by the postposition ko ke/ sao se baahr ba:har�outside of.�

23. vah gaaÐva ko baahr rhta hO.vah ga:�: ke ba:har rahta: h�. he village outside live-pr is He lives outside the village.

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24. vah kmaro sao baahr inaklaa.vah kamre se ba:har nikla:. he room-obl outside set out He came out of the room.

Anterior location is expressed by the postposition ko saamanao ke sa:mne�in front of.� It may also be followed by other postpositions like sao se �from,�or tk tak �up to.�

25. ivaQyaalaya ko saamanao ek baaga hO.vidhya:lay ke sa:mne ek ba:g h�. school in front of a garden isThere is a garden in front of the school.�

26. dukana ko saamanao sao basa inaklatI hO.duka:n ke sa:mne se bas nikalti: h�.shop-gen front-obl from bus start-ptc is A bus starts in front of the shop.

27. dukana ko saamanao tk saD,k hO.duka:n ke sa:mne tak sar�ak h�. shop-gen in front-obl up to road is A road is built up to the front of the shop.

Posterior location is denoted by ko pICo ke pi:che �behind.

28. ivaQyaalaya ko pICo ek dukana hO. vidhya:lay ke pi:che ek duka:n h�. school-gen behind one shop is There is a shop behind the school.

29. basa Asptala ko pIC sao jaatI hO. bas aspata:l ke pi:che se ja:ti: h�bus hospital-gen behind-obl from go-ptc is A bus runs at the back of the hospital.

30. Asptala ko pIC tk basa AatI hO.aspata:l ke pi:che tak bas a:ti: h�hospital-gen behind-obl up to bus come-ptc is The bus comes up to the back side of the hospital.

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Superior location is denoted by the use of the postpositions }pr (sao)u:par (se), �above,� preceded by the oblique case suffixes added tothe nouns.

31. makana ko }pr sao pxaI ]D,to hOM. maka:n ke u:par se pak�i: ur�te h��. house-gen above from birds fly-ptc are The birds fly above the (top of the) house.

Interior and interior-contact locations are not distinguished. They are indicated by the postposition naIcao ni:ce �under, below,� naIcao sao ni:ce se�from under�and naIcao tk ni:ce tak �up to under� preceded by the case suffixes added to nouns.

32. ja,maIna ko naIcao panaI inaklaa. zami:n ke ni:ce pa:ni: nikla:. ground-obl under water came out Water appeared from under the ground.

33. ja,maIna ko naIcao sao panaI calata hO.zami:n ke ni:ce se pa:ni: calta: h�.ground-obl under from water flow-pr is Water is passing through under the ground.

34. dIvaar ko naIcao tk panaI hO.di:va:r ke ni:ce tak pa:ni: h�.wall-obl under upto water is Water is underneath the wall.

Lateral and lateral-contact locations are expressed by thepostpositions ko pasa ke pa:s/ko saaqa sa:th �in the company of/besides.�

35. Amar ]maa ko pasaÀsaaqa baOza.amar uma: ke pa:s/sa:th b�t�ha:Amar Uma near satAmar sat near Uma.

Citerior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: or �towards� preceded by the proximate demonstrative [sa is �this�in the oblique case. It is alsodenoted by the term [sa Aaor is or �this side� which does not take a separate proximate demonstrative.

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36. ]sakI dukana saD,k ko [sa Aaor hO.uski: duka:n sar�ak ke is or h�. his shop road-obl this sideHis house is on this side of the road.

37. nadI ko [sa Aaor iktnao baccao hOM? nadi: ke is or kitne bacce h�?river this side how many children are How many children are there on this side of the river?

Ulterior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: or �side� preceded by theremote demonstrative ]sa us �that.� It can also be denoted by the useof ]sa par us pa:r �on the other side.�

38. saD,k ko ]sa Aaor nae makana banao hOM.sar�ak ke us or naye maka:n bane h��.road-obl that-obl side new houses constructed areNew houses are constructed on that side of the road.

39. saD,k ko ]sa par kafI AabaadI hO.sar�ak ke us pa:r kaphi: a:ba:di: h�. road that side abundant population isThere is a large population on the other side of the road.

Medial location is expressed by the terms ko baIca maoM ke bi:c m� �in themiddle,� ko BaItr ke bhi:tar �inside,� or ko drimayaana/maQya maoM kedarmia:n/madhy m� �in the middle,� ko baIca sao ke bi:c se �through the middle,� ko baIca tk ke bi:c tak �up to the middle of.�

40. maora Gar baaja,ar ko baIca maoM hO.mera: ghar ba:za:r ke bi:c m� h�.my house market middle in is My house is in the middle of the market.

41. yah dukana dao saD,kaoM ko baIca maoM hO.yah duka:n do sar�kõ ke bi:c m� h�.this shop two roads-obl middle is This shop is between the two roads.

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42. gaaÐva ko drimayaana ek maisjad�: ke darmiya:n ek masjid h�. village middle is one mosque is There is a mosque in the middle of the village.

43. gaaÐva ko baIca maoM sao ek nadI bahtI�: ke bi:c m� se ek nadi: bahti: h�.village middle through one stream flow-ptc is A stream passes through the village.

44. gaaÐva ko baIca tk panaI phuÐcata�: ke bi:c tak pa:ni: pah�cta: h�.village center up to water reach-ptc is Water reaches up to the center of the village.

Circumferential location is denoted by adding ko [d- igad- ke ird gird�around,� ko caaraoM Aaor ke ca:rõ or �on all sides� preceded by the obliqueforms of subject nouns.

45. [sa baaga ko [d- igad-ÀcaaraoM Aaor ek dIvaar ba:g ke ird gird/ca:rõ or ek di:va:r h�.this-obl garden around/four sides one wall is There is a wall around this garden.

46. pulaIsa baOMk ko caaraoM trf KD,I hO.puli:s bank ke ca:rõ tarph khar�i: h�.police bank all sides standing isThe police are standing on all the sides of the bank.

Citerior-anterior location is expressed by saamanao sa:mne �in front of�preceded by the subject nouns in oblique case. The expression ko saamanao sao ke sa:mne se is used to denote �in the opposite direction.�

47. Amar caaor ko saamanao KD,a hO.amar cor ke sa:mne khar�a: tha:.Amar thief-gen front-obl standing was Amar was standing in front of the thief.

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48. vah puilasavaalaa ko saamanao sao gauja,ra.vah pulisva:la: ke sa:mne se guzra:. he policeman-gen front-obl from passedHe passed in front of the policeman.

Motion past an object at some distance is expressed by ko baIca maoM saoo kebi:c m� se �past/through in(side)� preceded by the noun in the oblique case.

49. tola laMbaI pa[p sao karKanao tk phuÐcata lambi: payip se ka:rxa:ne tak pah�cta: h�.oil long-fs pipe through factory-obl up to reach-ptc is Oil reaches the factory through the long pipe.

Motion past an object at right and left angles to it is expressed using phrases such as da[-M Aaor da:�: or �on the right-hand side� and baa[-M Aaorba�: or �on the left-hand side.�

50. saD,k ko AaiKr pr saIQao da[-M Aaor inaklaao.sar�ak ke a:khir par si:dhe da:�: or niklo.road-gen end at straight right hand side go-impAt the end of this road, go straight towards the right.

51. pula par krko baa[-M Aaor jaanaa.pul pa:r karke ba:�: or ja:na:.bridge cross-cp left towards go-impAfter crossing the bridge, go straight towards the left.

Other directional locatives are exemplified as follows.

52. Baart ko ]<arÀdixaNaÀpUva-ÀpiScama maoM maaOsama zIk hOo.bha:rat ke uttar/dak�in/pu:rv/pascim m� m�sim t�hi:kh h�India-gen north/south/east/west in climate good isThe climate is good in the north/south/east/west of India.

The directional postposition kI Aaor ki: or �towards� is added to the above terms of directional locatives to indicate the meaning of �toward north/south/east/west.�

The expression naak ko saIQa maoM na:k ke si:dh m� �straight in the direction of nose� is used to denote the directional locative �straight ahead.�

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53. tuma naak ko saIQa maoM calaao.tum na:k ke si:dh m� calo. you nose-gen straight in walk Walk straight ahead.

Directional/locational precision is expressed by adding the emphatic particle - hI hi: to the locative expression.

54. vah Gar maoM hI rha.vah ghar m� hi: raha:.he home inside-emp remained He stayed right inside the house.

55. ]sanao mauJao saUcanaa drvaaja,o pr hI dI. usne mujhe su:cna: darva:ze par hi: di:he-erg me message door-at-emp gave He conveyed the message to me right at the door.

3.1.3. Noun Derivation

A large number of nouns in Hindi are derived from nouns, adjectives, and verbs by using prefixes and suffixes. In this process certain morphophonemic changes take place. Nouns from Nouns

Mostly Persian and Sanskrit prefixes and suffixes are used with thenouns of Persian and Sanskrit origin respectively. Some of these are used with native words. The most common prefixes are: bao be-, badbad-, bar bar-, naa na:- Ap ap-, ku ku-, dur dur-, and inar nir-.

bao be- (Persian) withoutSama- �arm shame baoSama- be�arm shameless[-maana i:ma:n faith bao[-maana bei:ma:n dishonest matlaba matlab meaning baomatlaba bematlab meaningless

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bad bad- (Persian) bad tmaIja, tami:z manner badtmaIja, badtami:z mannerless imaja,aja miza:j temperament badimaja,aja badmiza:j bad

temperamentja,at za:t character badja,at badza:t bad character

bar bar- (Persian) on va@t vakt time barva@t barvakt on time

naa na:- (Persian) notpsaMd pasand like naapsaMd na:pasand dislike

Ap ap- (Sanskrit) opposite maana ma:n honor Apmaana apma:n dishonorSabd �abd word ApSabd ap�abd bad words

dur dur- (Sanskrit) bad dSaa da�a: condition dud-Saa durda�a: bad conditiongait gati: position duga-it durgati: bad position

ku ku- (Sanskrit) badkma- karm deed kukma- kukarm bad deed paoSana po�an nutrition kupaoSana kupo�an malnutrition

inar nir- (Sanskrit) withoutAadr a:dar respect inaradr nira:dar disrespectdaoSa do� fault inadao-Sa nirdo� innocent

The most common suffixes are -dar -da:r, -gar -gar, -bMad -band, and -dana-da:n.

- dar da:r (Persian) owner dukana duka:n shop dukanadar duka:nda:r shopkeeperja,maIna zami:n land dja,maInadar zami:nda:r landlord

gar -gar (Persian) with saaoda soda: items saaodagar soda:gar merchantjaadU ja:du: magic jaadUgar ja:du:gar magician

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-baMd band (Persian) boundkmar kamar waist kmarbaMd kamarband belt ibastr bistar bed ibastrbaMd bistarband hold-all

-dcaI ci: (Persian) with K,ja,anaa xaza:na: treasure K,ja,anacaI xaza:anci: cashierAf,Ima afi:m opium Af,ImacaI afi:mci: opium addict

-dana da:n (Persian) container klama kalam pen klamadana kalamda:n penholderraoSana ro�an light raoSanadana ro�anda:n window

-K,anaa kha:na: (Persian) house kar ka:r work karK,anaa ka:rxa:na: factorySaraba �ara:b liquor SarabaKanaa �ara:bxa:na: bar Nouns from Adjectives

The most productive suffixes used for deriving abstract nouns from adjectives are -[- -i:, -ta -ta:, -pan, -Aa[- -a:i:, -[yat -iyat, -Aasa -a:s.

-[- -i: kmaja,aor kamzor weak kmaja,aorI kamzori: weakness K,uSa xu� happy K,uSaI xu�i: happiness garma garam hot garmaI garmi: heat garIba gari:b poor garIbaI gari:bi: poverty sad- sard cold sadI- sardi: coldness maaoTa mot�a: fat maaoTa[- mot�a:i: thickness K,raba xara:b bad K,rabaI xara:bi: defectsaaf sa:f clean safa[- safa:i: cleanliness}Ðcaa �:ca: high }Ðcaa[- �:ca:i: heightcaaOD,a c�r�a: wide caaOD,a[- c�r�a:i: width

naok nek noble naokI neki: nobility saccaa sacca: true saccaa[- sacca:i: truth maIza mi:t�ha: sweet imaza[- mit�ha:i: sweets

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-ta -ta: maUK- mu:rkh stupid maUK-ta mu:rkhta: stupiditypiva~ pavitr pure piva~ta pavitarta: purity ivaSaoYa vi�e� special ivaSaoYata vi�e�ta: specialtyivaSaala vi�a:l large ivaSaalata vi�a:lta: largenesssauMdr sundar beauty sauMdrta sundarta: beautiful samaana sama:n equal samaanata sama:nta: equality gaMBaIr gambhi:r serious gaMBaIrta gambhi:rta: seriousness

-pna -pankccaa kacca: raw kccaapna kacca:pan rawness kmaInaa kami:na: mean kmaInaapna kami:na:pan meannesspagala pa:gal mad pagalapna pa:galpan madness

-Aa[- -a:i:caZ, car�h climb caZ,a[- car�ha:i: climbingpZ, par�h study pZ,a[- par�ha:i: studies kmaa kama: earn kmaa[- kama:i: earning sauna sun listen saunaa[- suna:i: hearing

-[yat -iyat AsalaI asli: real Asailayat asliyat reality Kasa xa:s special Kaisayat xa:siyat specialty

- Aasa -a:s maIzaa mi:t�ha: sweet imazasa mit�ha:s sweetness Nouns from Verbs

The suffix -naa -na: is used to derive gerundive nouns from verbstems. The suffixes -Asa -as, -Ana -an, -[- -i:, -vat -vat, and -2 are also used to derive abstract nouns from verb stems.

-naa -na:Aa a: come Aanaa a:na: coming laa la: bring laanaa la:na: bringingilaK likh write ilaKnaa likhna: writing pZ, par�h read pZ,naa par�hna: reading

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- Ana -anQaD,k dhar�ak throb QaD,kna dhar�hkan throbbingplaga lag attach plagana lagan devotion

- [- -i: jaaoD, jor� add jaaoD,I jor�i: a pair laD, lar� quarrel laD,a[- lar�a:i: disputeilaK likh write ilaKa[- likha:i: writingpZ, par�h read pZa[- par�ha:i: studies

-vaT -vat �banaa bana: make banaavaT bana:vat � shape sajaa saja: decorate sajaavaT saja:vat � decorationqak thak be tired qakavaT thaka:vat� tiredness

-2Cap cha:p print Caap cha:p printing zga t �hag cheat zga t �hag cheatdaOD, d�r� run daOD, d�r� race

maar ma:r beat maar ma:r beating maaoD, mor� turn maaoD, mor� turning point]pja upaj produce ]pja upaj producthar ha:r be defeated har ha:r defeatKca- kharc spend Kca- kharc expenditureKola khel play Kola khel play samaJa samajh understand samaJa samajh understandingsaaoca soc think saaoca soc thinking

3.1.4. Noun Compounds

Compounds belonging to the noun category are headed by a noun, which is a final member of the group. The first member may be a noun, an adjective, or a participle and may be declined for number, gender and case. A postposition is attached to the final member of the compound.

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73 Noun-Noun Compounds

Noun-noun compounds can be divided into several subgroups based on semantic criteria: copulative compounds, partial duplicatedcompounds, superordinate compounds, complex compounds, hybridcompounds, genitive-noun compound, and participial compounds. Copulative Compounds

Copulative compounds, also known as co-compounds, are composed of semantically-related nouns. Each noun behaves as an independent constituent in the sense that each may be separately inflected forgender and number, though not for a postposition. Members of some compounds occur in a fixed order.

maata ipta ma:ta: pita: mother and father *pita: ma:ta: Baa[- baihna bha:i: bahan brother and sister ?bahan bha:i:sauK duK sukh dukh happiness and sorrow dukh sukh pap punya pa:p puny sin and good deeds *puny pa:p}Ðca naIca �:c ni:c high and low *ni:c �:c Reduplicated Compounds

Reduplicated compounds express exhaustive meaning.

Gar Gar ghar ghar (house-house) every house baccaa baccaa bacca: bacca: (child-child) every child pOsaa pOsaa p�sa: p�sa: (penny-penny) every penny Partially Duplicated Compounds

In a partial duplicated compound, also known as an echo-compound,the second member is formed by changing the initial letter of the first member. An initial va /v/ is changed into Sa /�/ or pa /p/; all other initial consonants or vowels are replaced by va /v/ or Sa /�/. The meaning of the ompound extends beyond the meaning of their members. The compounds usually represent the meaning of similar or associative things.

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vaanar Saanar va:nar �a:nar monkey and the likevaada Saada va:da: �a:da: promise and the likevaaoT SaaoT vot� �ot� vote and the like kama Saama/vaama ka:m �a:m/va:m work and the like khanaI vaanaI/SaanaI kaha:ni: va:ni:/�ahni: story and the like dUQa SaUQa du:dh �u:dh milk and the like panaI vaanaI/SaanaI pa:ni: va:ni:/�a:ni: water and the like Superordinate Compounds

In this type of compound, the meaning projected by the membersdoes not in any way relate to the meaning of the compound as a whole.

haqa paMva ha:th pa:�: (hand-feet) body Kanaa pInaa kha:na: pi:na: (eating-drinking) lifestyle jala vaayaU jal va:yu (water-air) climatecaaya panaI ca:y pa:ni: (tea-water) refreshment Complex Compounds

Complex compounds involving three or more nouns are not very common in Hindi.

tna mana Qana tan man dhan (body-mind-money) devotion Hybrid Compounds

In hybrid compounds, one member is usually borrowed from anotherlanguage and the second member is a Hindi noun.

Dbala raoTI d �abal rot�i: (double-bread ) breadrola gaaD,I rel ga:r�i: (tracks-vehicle) train Adjective-Noun Compounds

A large number of compounds are composed of an adjective followed by a noun. There are no single terms for them.

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kalaI imaca- ka:li: mirc (black-pepper) pepper CaoTI [laayacaI chot�i: ila:yci: (small cardamom) cardamom Modifier-Noun Compounds

In modifier-noun compounds, the first member acts like a modifier or source and the second member is a noun.

baOla gaaD,I b�l ga:r�i: (bull-vehicle) bullock cart

gaMgaa jala gaηa: jal (Ganges-water) water of Ganges

3.2. Pronouns

Pronouns are inflected for number and case. Broadly, there are seven classes of pronouns in Hindi: personal, demonstrative, relative, possessive, reflexive, interrogative, and indefinite. Pronouns in the direct and oblique cases are presented below.

3.2.1. Personal Pronouns

Case Person Sg Pl Direct

1st maOM m� hma ham2nd (sg) tU tu tuma tum (hon sg/pl) Aap a:p Aap a:p 3rd prox yah yah yao yerem vah vah vao ve

Note that the personal pronoun Aap a:p is used as an honorific form of address for both singular and plural subjects. In the polite speech, it is occasionally used for a person spoken about in place of yao ye.The term laaoga log may be attached to a plural pronoun for defining oremphasizing plurality: Aap laaoga a:p log, hma laaoga ham log, tuma laaoga tum log,yao laaoga ye log, vao laaoga ve log.

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Case Person Sg Pl Dative kao ko

1st mauJao mujhe/ mauJakao mujhko hmaoM ham�/ hmakao hamko 2nd tumho tumhe/tumakao tumko tumhoM tumh�/tumakao tumko

Aapkaoo a:pko Aapkaoo a:pko 3rd prox [sao ise/[sakao isko [nhoM inh�/[nakao inkorem ]sao use/]nakao unko ]nhoMunh�/]nakao unko

Ergative nao ne 1st maOMnao m��ne hmanao hamne

2nd tUnao tu:ne tumanao tumne Aapnao a:pne Aapnao a:pne

3rd prox [sanao isne [nhaoMnao inhõne rem ]sanao usne ]nhaoMnao unhõne

Locative pr par1st mauJapr mujhpar hmapr hampar 2nd tuJapr tujhpar tumapr tumpar

Aappr a:ppar Aappr a:ppar 3rd prox [sapr ispar [napr inpar rem ]sapr uspar ]napr unpar

Ablative sao se1st mauJasao mujhse hmasao hamse 2nd tumasao tum se tumasao tumse

Aapsao a:pse Aapsao a:pse3rd prox [sasao isse [nasao inse rem ]sasao usse ]nasao un se

Possessive / Genitive ka ka:/ ko ke/kI ki 1st maora mera: hmaara hama:ra: 2nd tora tera: tumhara tumha:ra:

Aapka a:pka: Aapka a:pka: 3rd prox [saka iska: ]saka uska: rem ]saka uska: ]naka unka:

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3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns

Direct/Nominative CaseSg Pl

prox yah yeh yao yerem vah vah vao ve

Oblique Case kao ko/maOM m�/pr par/ka ka:/ko ke/kI ki:/ Asao se Sg Pl

prox [sa is [na in rem ]sa us ]na un

Note that the demonstrative pronouns are also used as personal pronouns of the third person.

There are two additional pronouns which are used in the sense of �so and so� to refer to third person subjects: Amauk amuk and f,laaM falã:/f,laanaa fala:na:.

3.2.3. Relative Pronouns

Hindi has one relative pronoun: jaao jo �who, which, that, what� in both the singular and plural. It is accompanied with vah vah in themain sentence called correlative of jaao jo. The correlative form saao so �he, they� is now obsolete, it is used in proverbs and sayings. Theterm laaoga log may be added to jaao jo to indicate or emphasize plurality:jaao laaoga jo log. The oblique forms of the relative pronoun used alongwith the case-signs are as follows.

Singular Plural ijasa jis/ijasanao jisne ijana jin/ijaMhaoMnao jinhõneijasakao jisko/ijasao jise ijanakao jinko/ijaMhoM jinh�ijasasao jis se ijanasao jin se

3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns substitute and refer to a noun or pronoun whichis the logical subject of the sentence. Hindi has three reflexive pronouns: Aap a:p, its oblique forms Apnaa apna: and Apnao apne, and a compound form of these two, Apnao Aap apne-a:p. The oblique form

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Aapsa a:pas means �each other� or �one another.� The reflexive pronoun Aap a:p is also substituted by the Sanskrit borrowed term svayaMsvayam or Persian-borrowed term K,ud khud in Sanskritized and Persianized styles respectively. The reflexive pronoun Aap a:poptionally followed by the emphatic form hI hi: has an adjectival meaning. It can also be used as an adverb in the meaning �of one�sown accord, spontaneously.� Similarly, Apnao Aap apne-a:p can either be used in an emphatic sense or in the adverbial meaning of �of one�s own accord.�

1. vah Aap hIÀApnao Aap Gar gayaa.vah a:p hi: / apne-a:p ghar gaya:he himself emp home went He himself went home.

Note that the oblique forms of Apnao apne and Apnao Aap apne-a:p(except when adverbial) mean �oneself� with the case-signs/postpositions kaooo ko, sao se, maoM m�, and pr par.

3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns

In both singular and plural, there are two basic interrogativepronouns: kaOna k�n �who�(referring to person) and @yaa kya:�what�(referring to things). The interrogative pronoun @yaa kya: is a neutral form. It is also used for denoting the interrogative nature of the sentence. Note that kaOna k�n and @yaa kya: can be used as relativepronouns too.

2. kaOna Aayaa¸ kao[- nahIM jaanata.k�n a:ya:, koyi: nah�: ja:nta: who came no one neg knows Nobody knows who came.

The interrogative pronoun @yaa kya: is also used as an exclamatory adjective.

3. @yaa sauMdr baaga hO!kya: sundar ba:g h�!what beautiful garden is What a beautiful garden!

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It is also used as an emphatic negation.

4. laD,kI @yaa hO naaja,uk fUla hO.lar�ki: kya: h�, na:zuk phu:l h�. girl what is delicate flower is It is not a girl; it is a delicate flower. (What a girl! Just like a delicate flower.)

Interrogative adverbial forms related to these pronouns are: kba kab�when,� kOsaa kaisa: �how,� kaOnasaa k�nsa: �which one,� iktnaa kitna: �how much.�

3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns

There are two indefinite pronouns in Hindi: kao[- koi: �someone,somebody�and kuC kuch �something.� kuC kuch is also used as an adjective (numeral and quantitative) and as an adverb meaning �some, a few, a little, partly.� Similarly, kao[- koi: can be used as anadverb in the sense of �some, about.� It can refer to �something� if used with -saa -sa:/-saI -si: = kao[- saa koi: sa:/ kao[- saI koi: si:. kao[- koi: mayalso be used as the plural form to indicate �some people.�

3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns

Whereas the same case-signs namely nao ne, kao ko, k sao se, maOM m�, pr parand ka ka: are attached to pronouns as they are attached to nouns, insome cases the oblique forms of pronouns are formed differently.

Direct Oblique Sg Pl Sg Pl yah yeh yao ye [sa is [na in vah vah vao ve ]sa us ]na un jaao jo jaao jo ijasa jis ijana jinsaao so saao so itsa tis itna tin kao[- koi: kao[- koi: iksaI kisi: ikMhIM kinh�:

Note that (i) when the case-signs are added the singular forms yah yeh, vah vah, jaao jo, and saao so change to [sa is, ]sa us, ijasa jis and itsa tisrespectively; kaOna k�n and @yaa kya: change to iksa kis; and kuC kuchchanges to iksaI kisi:. (ii) In the plural, except before nao ne, these

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change to [na in, ]na un, ijana jin, itna tin, ikna kin, and ikMhIM kinh�:. (iii) Before nao ne, the plural oblique forms are: [nhUM inh�:, ]nhaoM unh�:, ijanhaMojinh�:, iknhaMo kinh�:, and iknhIM kinh�:. (iv) maOM m�� and tU tu: remainunchanged before nao ne: (maOMnao m��ne, tUnao tu:ne). v) Followed by other case-signs, maOM m�� and tU tu: change to mauJa mujh and tUJa tujh (mauJakao

mujhko, tuJakao tujhko). (vi) The pronouns hma ham and tuma tum remain unchanged before all case-signs: hmakao hamko, tumhoM tumh�. (vii) The postposition ka ka: is not attached to maOM m��, tU tu:, and tuma tum. They change to the following forms agreeing with the object noun ingender and number.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg/Plmaora mera: maoro maorI meri:tora tera: toro tere torI teri:tumhara tumha:ra: tumharo tumha:re tumharI tumha:ri:

(viii) As an alternative to kao ko, all oblique forms attach an e e insingular and hoM h� in plural: [sao ise/[sakao isko, ]sao use/]nakao unko, [nhoM inh�/[nakao inko, ]nhoM unh�/]nakao unko, tumhoM tumh�/tuJao tujhe, hmaoM ham�/hmakao hamko. In the case of ham, eoM � is added, not hoM h�. Note that eoM � or hoM h� is not attached to the indefinite pronouns kao[- koi: and kuC kuch.

As pointed out earlier, the reflexive pronoun ]Aap a:p changes to ]Apnao apne before the case signs kao ko, ]sao se, maoM m�, and pr par. nao ne is not added to the reflexive Aap a:p but only to the subject to which Aap a:p refers. For denoting various senses of ka ka:, Aap a:p changes to Apnaa apna:, Apnao apne, and ApnaI apni:.

3.2.8. Compound Pronouns

Two, or more than two pronouns may be compounded or the same pronoun may be repeated to convey various shades of meanings. The following are some important compound pronouns.

Apnao Aap apne a:p by oneselfAap hI Aap a:p hi: a:p by oneself, to oneself jaao kao[- jo koi: who(so)ever jaao kuC jo kuch what(so)everjaao jaao jo jo whoever/whatever

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kao[- kao[- koi: koi: some, a few (archaic)saba kao[- sab koi: all, everybody (archaic) hr kao[- har koi: all, everybody kao[- koi: na koi: someone or the other kao[- kao[- koi: � koi: some � others or one � anotherkuC na kuC kuch na kuch something or the otherkuC ka kuC kuch ka: kuch something different from expected saba kuC sab kuch everything bahut kuC bahut kuch a great dealkuC kuC kuch kuch somewhat, a little kao[- AaOr koi: �r someone else

AaOr kao[- �r koi: someone else

kao[- dUsara koi: du:sra: someone elsekuC AaOr kuch �r something else, a little more

AaOr kuC �r kuch something else

kuC � kuC kuch � kuch some � some (Conjunctive) kao[- saa koi: sa: anything, something kao[- saa k�n sa: which one

kaOna kaOna k�n k�n which persons, which ones

@yaa @yaa kya: kya: which things@yaa sao @yaa kya: se kya: something contrary to expectations@yaa @yaa kya: � kya: equally, without difference Aapsa maoM kI a:pas m�/ki: each other, one another

All the pronouns can be combined with the emphatic particle hI hi:like maOM hI m�� hi: �I myself,� tU hI tu: hi: �thou thyself,� Aap hI a:p hi:�you yourself,� kao[- hI koi: hi: �hardly any one,� and kuC hI kuch hi:�hardly a few.� Note that most of these compounds are affected bySandhi and are modified: mauJa mujh + hI hi: = mauJaI mujhi:, tuJa tujh + hIhi: = tuJaI tujhi:, hma ham + hI hi: = hmhI hamhi: , tuma tum + hI hi: = tumhI atumhi:, vah vah +hI hi: = vahI vahi:, yah yeh + hI hi: = yahI yahi:, ]sa us + hI hi: = ]saI usi:, [sa is + hI hi: = [saI isi:, iksa kis + hI hi: = iksaI kisi:, [na in +hI hi: = [nhI inhi:, ]na un + hI hi: = ]nhI unhi:, ijana jin + hI hi: + ijanhI jinhi:, ikna kin + hI hi: = iknhI kinhi:.

3.3. Adjectives

Adjectives in Hindi can be classified into two groups: (i) inflectedand (ii) uninflected.

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3.3.1. Inflected

These adjectives are inflected for gender and number.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg / PlbaD,a bar�a: baD,o bar�e baD,I bar�i: bigCaoTa chot�a: CaoTo chot�e CaoTI chot�i: small laMbaa lamba: laMbao lambe laMbaI lambi: tall kalaa ka:la: kalao kale kalaI ka:li: black hra hara: hro hare hrI hari: greenAcCa accha: AcCo acche AcCI acchi: good

3.3.2. Uninflected

These adjectives are not inflected for number and gender.

sauMdr laD,ka/laD,kI sundar lar�ka: /lar�ki: beautiful boy/girlduKI AadmaI /aAaOrt dukhi: admi:/ �rat sad man/woman

safod kpD,a /kmaIja, saphed kapr�a: /kami:z white cloth/shirt

3.3.3. Types of Adjectives

There are two broad types of adjectives: (i) those that describe a quality or quantity, and (ii) those that distinguish one person or thingfrom another.

(i) Quality is expressed either by a basic adjective or by an adjective derived from a noun.

sauMdr laD,kI sundar lar�ki: a beautiful girlSamaI-laa laD,ka �armi:la: lar�ka: a bashful boy

The adjective SamaI-laa �armi:la: is derived by adding the suffix - [--laa i:la: to the noun stem. Negative qualities are expressed by a separate set of adjectives and also by adding negative prefixes.

badsaUrt AaOrt bad-su:rat �rat an ugly woman

baoSama- laD,ka be-�arm lar�ka: a shameless boy

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Quantity may be expressed either by numerals or by the adjectives of quantity like bahut bahut / AiQak adhik �a lot,� kaf,I ka:fi: �sufficient,� kma kam �less,� qaaoD,a thor�a: �a little.�

Co iktabaoM che kita:b� six books bahut laoga bahut log many peopleqaaoD,a dUQa thor�a: du:dh a little milk

Adjectives of quantity may also be formed by the combination of numeral + unit of measure + (classifier (terms of weight, length))/genitive postposition) (+ the particle vaalaa va:la:) + noun.

dao saaO gaja, laMbaI ³vaalaI´ s� gaz lambi: (va:li:) rassi: two hundred yards long (gen.) ropethe two-hundred-yard long rope

dao iklaao vaja,na vaalaa p%qar. do kilo vazan va:la: patthartwo kilo weight-gen stonethe stone weighing two kilograms

The postposition sao se is used in the formation of reduplicated adjectival phrases.

AiQak sao AiQak adhik se adhik at most kma sao kma kam se kam at leastAcCo sao AcCa acche se accha: the best of allbauro sao baura bure se bura: worst of all maIzo sao maIza mi:t�he se mi: t�ha: very sweet

Almost all pronouns can function as adjectives. The demonstrative adjectives that point out persons or things yah - yeh �this,� ye �these� vah vah �that,� ve �those� - are used in the initial position.

yah Gar yeh ghar this houseyao iktabaoM ye kita:b� these books vah laD,ka vah lar�ka: that boy vao baccao ve bacce those children

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Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.

kaOna laD,ka? k�n lar�ka:? which boy?

@yaa kama? kya: ka:m? what work?

The possessive pronouns particularize or show relation.

maora / tora daost mera:/tera: dost my/your friend maorI / AapkI baihna meri:/a:pki: bahan my/your sister ]saka / ]naka Baa[- uska:/unka: bha:i: his/their brother

Indefinite and relative pronouns, too, function as adjectives.

kao[- AKbaar koi: akhba:r some newspaperkuC saibja,yaaÐ kuch sabziyã: some vegetables jaao baccaa jo bacca: the child who

3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives

There are three varieties of adjectival degrees: superlative, comparative and minimal. Superlative and comparative degrees of qualities are denoted with the help of the postposition sao se attachedto the noun or pronoun (in oblique form) with which the comparison is made. Superlative involves comparison with all. For example,

saba sao baD,I [maart sab se bar�i: ima:rat the biggest building saba sao sauMdr laD,kI sab se sundar lar�ki: the most beautiful girl

Comparative involves comparison between two.

Apnao daost sao laMbaa apne dost se lamba: taller than his friend

Minimal involves no comparison.

maora AcCa daost mera: accha: dost my good friend

The postposition maoM m� is also alternately used to denote the superiority of one out of two or more.

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daonaaoM maoM baD,a donõ: m� bar�a: bigger of the twosaba maoM }Ðcaa sab m� �:ca: the tallest

Sometimes, the phrase kI Apoxaa ki: apek�a: �in comparison to� is substituted for sao se.

]maa kI Apoxaa laMbaI uma: ki: apek�a: lambi: taller than Uma

Notice that words AiQak/j,yaada adhik/zya:da: �more� and kma kam �less�may be prefixed to adjectives for denoting comparison.

saaonao sao AiQak camakIlaa

sone se adhik camki:la:

brighter than gold

fUla sao j,yaada kaomala phu:l se zya:da: komal more delicate than a flower

baIsa sao kma bi:s se kam less than twenty

3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives

A large number of adjectives are derived from nouns by adding the suffixes -Aa -a:, -[- -i:, -]-u:, -[laa -i:la:, -laU -lu:, -[k -ik, -janak -janak, -da[--da:i:, -maya -mai:, -vana -van, -Aanaa -a:na: , -naak -na:k, -[-na -i:n, -maMd -mand, and -dar -da:r.

-Aa -a:Noun Adjective saca sac truth saccaa sacca: truthfulJaUz jhu:t�h lie JaUza jhu:t�ha: liar BaUK bhu:kh hunger BaUKa bhu:kha: hungry

-[- -i: kImat ki:mat price kImatI ki:mti: expensive sauK sukh comfort sauKI sukhi: happy naok nek good naokI neki: goodness phaD, paha:r� mountain phaDI paha:r�i: mountainous

-}U -u: poT pet� stomach poTU pet�u: voraciousbaaja,ar ba:za:r market baaja,a$ ba:za:ru: common

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-[-laa -i:la:rsa ras juice rsaIlaa rasi:la: juicy ja,hr zahar poison ja,hrIlaa zahri:la: poisonousKca- kharc expense KcaI-laa kharci:la: expensive p%qar patthar stone p%qarIlaa patthri:la: stony

-laU -lu: Eawa �radha: faith EawalaU �radha:lu: devoteedyaa daya: kindness dyaalaU daya:lu: kind

-[k -ik samaaja sama:j society samaaijak sama:jik socialiva&ana vigya:n science iva&ainak vigya:nik scientificvaYa- var� year vaaiYa-k va:r�ik yearly

-janak -janakAaSaa a:�a: hope AaSaajanak a:�a:janak hopefulicaMta cinta: worry icaMtajanak cinta:janak worried

-da[- -da:i: sauK sukh comfort sauKda[- sukhda:i: comfortableduK dukh pain duKda[- dukhda:i: painful

-ma[- -mai: AaSaa a:�a: hope AaSaama[- a:�a:mai: hopeful

-vaana -va:n Qana dhan wealth Qanavaana dhanva:n wealthybala bal strength balavaana balva:n strong

-Aanaa -a:na:saala sa:l year saalaanaa sa:la:na: yearlyraoja, roz day raoja,anaa roza:na: daily mad- mard man mada-naa marda:na: manly

-naak -na:k dd- dard pain dd-naak dardna:k painfulK,aOf, x�f fear K,aOf,naak x�fna:k frightful

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K,tra xatra: danger K,trnaak xatarna:k dangerous

-[-na -i:n rMga rang color rMgaIna rangi:n colorfulnamak namak salt namakIna namki:n salty SaaOk ��k liking SaaOkIna ��ki:n fond

-maMd -mand A@la akl wisdom A@lamaMd aklmand wisedaOlat d�lat wealth daOlatmaMd d�latmand wealthy

-dar -da:rmaala ma:l property maaladar ma:lda:r wealthy ja,maIna zami:n land ja,maInadar zami:nda:r landlorddukana duka:n shopdukanadar duka:nda:r shopkeeper

When saa sa: �like� is attached to the oblique forms of nouns or pronouns, they function as adjectives.

fUla saa phu:l sa: flower-like mauJasaa mujh sa:/ tumasaa tum sa: me-like/you-like

saa sa: is also attached to adjectives to denote �looking, seeming.� When added to quantitative adjectives, it intensifies the meaning.

laala saa la:l sa: red-lookingbaD,a saa bar�a: sa: big-looking dubalaa saa dubla: sa: slim-lookingkmaja,aor saa kamzor sa: weak-looking}Ðcaa saa �:ca: sa: high-lookingbahut saa bahut sa: a great dealqaaoD,a saa thor�a: sa: just a little

The forms of saa sa: (agreeing in number and gender with the noun)are also added to the genitive/possessive forms to denote a similarity of quality, or possession.

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gaaya ka saa mauMh ga:y ka: sa: m�h a face like that of a cow]nako sao kpD,o unke se kapr�e clothes similar to hismaorI meri:/ torI saI naak teteri: si: na:k a nose like mine/yours

saa sa: may be replaced by jaOsaa j�sa: with nouns and pronouns (other than indefinite or interrogative ones.)

baMdr saa/jaOsaa bandar sa:/j�sa: similar to a monkey

tuma saa/jaOsaa tum sa:/j�sa: like you

The forms of saa sa: can be added to kao[- koi: and kaOna k�n to indicate �any one,� and �which one� respectively.

kao[- saa rMga koi:-sa: raη any color kao[- saI kmaIja, koi:-si: kami:z any shirt kaOna saa kaoT k�n-sa: kot� which coat

kaOna saI kmaIja, k�n-si: kami:z which shirt

3.3.6. Numerals

Numerals are adjectives indicating number. They may by divided into cardinals, ordinals, or multiplicatives. Cardinals

Cardinal numeral forms in Hindi are given below.

ek ek 1 dao do 2 tIna ti:n 3 caar ca:r 4 paÐca pã:c 5 Co che 6 saat sa:t 7 Aaz a:t�h 8 naaO nav 9 dsa das 10 gyaarh gia:rah 11 baarh ba:rah 12torh terah 13 caaOdh c�dah 14pMd`h pandrah 15 saaolah solah 16sa~h satrah 17 Azarh at�ha:rah 18]nnaIsa unni:s 19 baIsa bi:s 20 [@kIsa ikki:s 21 baa[-sa ba:i:s 22

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to[-sa tei:s 23 caaObaIsa c�bi:s 24pccaIsa pacci:s 25 CbbaIsa chabbi:s 26sa<aa[-sa satta:i:s 27 AT\za[-sa at�t �ha:i:s 28 ]na<aIsa untti:s 29 tIsa ti:s 30 [k<aIsa ikatti:s 31 ba<aIsa batti:s 32 tOMtIsa t��nti:s 33 caaOMtIsa c�nti:s 34pOMtIsa p��ti:s 35 C<aIsa chatti:s 36 saOMtIsa s��ti:s 37 AD,tIsa ar�ti:s 38 ]natalaIsa unta:li:s 39 caalaIsa ca:li:s 40 [ktalaIsa ikta:li:s 41 bayaalaIsa baya:li:s 42 MtOMtaalaIsa t��ta:li:s 43 cavaalaIsa cava:li:s 44 pOMtalaIsa p��ta:li:s 45 iCyaalaIsa chiya:li:s 46 saOMtalaIsa s��ta:li:s 47 AD,talaIsa ar�ta:li:s 48 ]nacaasa unca:s 49 pcaasa paca:s 50 [@yaavana ikya:van 51 baavana ba:van 52itrpna tirpan 53 caaOvana c�van 54pcapna pacpan 55 CPpna chappan 56satavana sata:van 57 Azavana at�ha:van 58]nasaz unsat �h 59 saaz sa:t�h 60[ksaz iksat �h 61 baasaz ba:sat�h 62itrsaz tirsat �h 63 caaOMsaz c��sat�h 64pOMsaz p��sat �h 65 iCyaasaz chiya:sat�h 66 sarsaz sar�sat�h 67 AD,saz ar�sat�h 68]nah<ar unahttar 69 sa<ar sattar 70 [kh<ar ikahttar 71 bah<ar bahttar 72ith<ar tehttar 73 caaOh<ar c�httar 74pcah<ar pacahttar 75 iCh<ar chihttar 76 sath<ar satahttar 77 Azh<ar at�hahttar 78]naasaI una:si: 79 AssaI assi: 80 [@yaasaI ikya:si: 81 bayaasaI baya:si: 82 itrasaI tira:si: 83 caaOrasaI c�ra:si: 84pcaasaI paca:si: 85 iCyaasaI chiya:si: 86 satasaI sata:si: 87 AzasaI at�ha:si: 88 navaasaI nava:si: 89 nabbao nabbe 90[@yaanavao ikya:nave 91 bayaanavao baya:nave 92itranavao tira:nave 93 caaOranavao c�ra:nave 94pcaanavao paca:nave 95 iCyaanavao chiya:nave 96satanavao sata:nave 97 Azanavao at�ha:nave 98

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inanyaanavao ninya:nave 99 saaO s� 100SaUnya �u:ny zero hja,ar haza:r 1,000

Starting with one hundred, the numerals proceed regularly.

(ek) saaO (ek) s� 100ek saaO ek ek s� ek 101ek saaO dao ek s� do 102dao saaO do s� 200dao saaO do s� ek 201ek hja,ar ek haza:r 1000dao hja,ar tIna do haza:r ti:n 2003dao hja,ar saat do haza:r sa:t 2007

The numerals one thousand and above are as follows.

(ek) hja,ar (ek) haza:r one thousand dsa hja,ar das haza:r ten thousand laaK la:kh hundred thousand dsa laaK das la:kh million kraoD, karor� ten million Arba arab thousand million (billion)Krba kharab hundred billion Ordinals

The first six ordinals are phlaa pahla: �first,� dUsara du:stra: �second�; tIsara ti:sra: �third�; caaOqaa c�tha: �fourth�; paMcavaa pã:cva: �fifth�; Czachat�ha: �sixth.� The suffix - AaM -ã is added to the cardinals from seven onwards to make ordinals: saatvaaM sa:tvã: �seventh�; AazvaaM a:t�hvã:�eighth�; naaOvaaM navã: �ninth�; dsavaaM dasvã: �tenth�; baIsavaaM bi:svã:�twentieth�; tIsavaaM ti:svã: �thirteenth�; saaOvaaM s�vã: �hundredth�; hja,arvaaM haza:rvã: �thousandth� etc.

Adjectives of Quantity

Nouns denoting measure, and weight preceded by a numeral or by an adjective denoting an indefinite number, such as kao[- koi: or kuC kuch, are used as adjectives of quantity.

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tIna iklaao caavala ti:n kilo ca:val three kilograms of ricedao Pyaalao caaya do pya:le ca:y two cups of tea kuC baaotla Sahd kuch botal �ahad some bottles of honey k[- iklaao dUQa kai: kilo du:dh several kilos of milk

Collective Adjectives

Some regular numerals can be replaced by collective adjectives likejaaoD,a jor�a: �pair,� caaOkD,a c�kr�a: �four,� pMjaa panja: �five,� C@ka chakka:

�six,� dja-na darjan �dozen,� baIsaI bi:si:/ kaoD,I kor�i: �score,� saOMkD,a s��kr�a:�hundred.� They are treated as nouns and may be qualified by the regular numerals.

dao jaaoD,o kpD,o do jor�e kapr�e two pairs of clothes tIna dja-na saoba ti:n darjan seb three dozens of apples

The saOMkD,a s��kr�a: is also used in the sense of �per hundred.�

baIsa Épe saOMkD,a bi:s rupye s��kr�a: twenty rupees per hundred Fractions

Fractions are expressed as follows:

ek baTo caar/pava ek bat�e ca:r/pa:v one quarter (pa:v is used mainly for denoting weights) ek baTo tIna/itha[- ek bat�e ti:n/tiha:i: one-third ek baTo dao/AaQaa ek bat�e do/a:dha: half tIna baTo caar/paOna ti:n bat�e ca:r/p�n three quartersek sahI ek baTo caar/saaOvaa

ek sahi: ek bat�e ca:r/sava:

one and a quarter

ek sahI ek baTo dao DoZ, ek sahi: ek bat�e do/d�er�h one and a halfdao sahI ek baTo dao Z,a[- do sahi: ek bat�e

do/d�ha:i: two and a half

paOnao dao p�ne do two less by a quarter paOnao tIna p�ne ti:n three less by a

quarter saaZ,o tIna sa:r�he ti:n three and a half

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Note that saaZ,o sa:r�he denoting �half� is attached to the numeralsbeginning with three: saaZ,o caar sa:r�he ca:r �four and half,� saaZ,o paMcasa:r�he pã:c �five and half,� etc. The system of denoting fractions isalso used to denote fractions of hundred, thousand, ten thousand, etc.

savaa saaO sava: s� 125DoZ, saaO d �er�h s� 150sZ,a[- saaO d �ha:i: s� 250D,oZ, hja,ar d �er�h haza:r 1,500savaa dao laaK sava: do la:kh 2,25,000 Multiplicatives

Multiplicatives are formed by attaching gaunaa guna:�multiplied by� tothe numerals. The numerals 2 to 8 are slightly modified.

duganaa dugna: or dUnaa du:na: �double,� itgaunaa tiguna: �threefold,� caaOganaa c�guna: �fourfold,� pMcaguanaa pancguna: �fivefold,� Cgaunaa chaguna�sixfold,� satgaunaa satguna: �sevenfold,� Azgaunaa at�hguna: �eightfold.�After this the forms are regular: navagaunaa navguna: �ninefold,� dsagaunaadasguna: �tenfold,� baIsagaunaa bi:sguna: �twentyfold,� tIsagaunaa ti:sguna:�thirtyfold,� saaOgaunaa s�guna: �hundredfold,� hja,argaunaa haza:rguna:�thousandfold. The gaunaa guna: can be attached to fractions too: savaa gaunaa sava: guna: 1¼ times as much, D,oZ gaunaa d�er�h guna: 1½ times as much,Z,a[- gaunaa d �ha:i: guna: 2 ½ times as much. Approximation

Approximation is expressed by placing kao[- koi:, lagaBaga lagbhag, or paya: pra:ya: before the numeral.

kao[- baIsa AadmaI koi: bi:s a:dmi: about twenty persons lagaBaga paÐca saaO laaoga lagbhag pã:c s� log about five hundred peoplep`aya: dao saaO vaYa- pihlao

pra:ya: do s� var� pahle

about two hundred years ago

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It is also expressed by certain pairs of numerals.

dao-ek do-ek one or twodao-tIna do-ti:n about two or threedsa-paMca das-pã:c about tensaaO-savaa saaO s�- sava: s� about 125

Reduplication of a numeral denotes �� at a time,� or ��per piece.�

dao-dao laD,ko do-do lar�ke two boys at a time ek-ek laD,ko kao tIna-tIna iktabaoM dao.

ek-ek lar�ke ko ti:n-ti:n kita:b� do

Give three books to each boy. Aggregation

Aggregation is expressed by adding - AaoM -õ to a numeral. In the caseof dao do, -naaoM -nõ is added. (e.g., daonaaoM donõ �both,� tInaaoM ti:nõ �all the three,� caaraoM ca:rõ �all the four,� dsaaoM dasõ �all the ten,� baIsaaoM bi:sõ �all thetwenty,� etc.). Notice that -[yaaoM -iyõ is added to numerals dsa das or baIsabi:s to indicate an indefinite large number (e.g., disayaaoM dasiyõ �several tens,� baIisayaaoM bi:siyõ �several scores,� etc.)

The suffix -AaoM -õ is also added to the nouns signifying duration,measures, weight to indicate large and indefinite number or quantity.(e.g., mahInaaoM mahi:nõ �a number of months,� barsaaoM barsõ �a number of years,� baaoiryaaoM Anaaja boriyõ ana:j �sackfulls of grains,� etc.

3.4. Verbs

There are two types of verbs: main and auxiliary.

3.4.1. The Verb hona:

The verb haonaa hona: �to be� is used as a copula in simple predicative sentences, as well as an auxiliary in different types of verbal constructions. The verb haonaa hona: has four sets of verbal forms: present, past, presumptive, and subjunctive.

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(a) The present tense forms of haonaa hona: agree with their subjects in number and person.

Person Singular Plural1st hUÐM h�: hOM h��

2nd (intimate) hO h� hao ho

2nd (polite) hOM h�� hOM h��

3rd hO h� hOM h��

maOM hUРm�� h�: I am hma hOM ham h�� we aretU hO tu: h� you are tuma hao tum ho you are Aap hOM a:p h�� you are vah hO vah h� he/she isvao hOM ve h�� (s)he is/ they are

(b) The past tense forms of haonaa hona: agree with their subjects ingender and number.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl qaa tha: qao the qaI thi: qaIM th�:

maOM qaa/qaI m�� tha:/thi: I was

vah qaa/qaI vah tha:/thi: he/she was tU qaa/qaI tu: tha:/thi: you were hma/ tuma/ Aap/ yao/ vao qao. ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve the. we/you/she/they were hma/ tuma/ Aap/ yao/ vao qaIM. ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve th�: we/you/she/they were

(c) The presumptive forms of the verb haonaa hona: agree with their subjects in person, gender, and number.

Person Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

1st hUÐgaa h�:ga: haoMgao hõge hUÐgaI h�:gi: haoMgaI hõgi:2nd (intimate) haogaa hoga: haogao hoge haogaI hogi: haogaI hogi:2nd (hon sg/pl) haoMgao hõge haoMgao hõge haoMgaI hõgi: haoMgaI hõgi:3rd haogaa hoga: haoMgao hõge haogaI hogi: haoMgaI hõgi:

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(d) The subjunctive forms of haonaa hona: are used to indicate the situations of speculative, hypothetical, contingent, or desired nature. They agree with their subjects in person and number.

Person Singular Plural1st hao}Ð ho�: haoM hõ 2nd (intimate) hao ho hao ho 2nd (hon sg/pl) haoM hõ haoM hõ 3rd hao ho haoM hõ

maOM hao}Ð m�� ho�: hma haoM ham hõ tU hao tu: ho tuma hao tum ho/ho Aap haoM a:p hõ yah/vah hao yeh/vah hoyao/vao haoM ye/ve hõ

3.4.2. Main Verbs

There are three types of main verbs: simple verbs, conjunct verbs, and compound verbs. A simple verb may consist of one main verband person, gender, number, tense, and aspect markers. In thecompound verb construction, the person, gender, number, and aspect markers are taken by the explicators/operators, and in the conjunct verbal construction they are taken by the verb element. We willclassify the verbal constructions as intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, causative, dative, conjunct, and compound. Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs like Aa a: �come,� jaa ja: �go� ]z ut�h �get up,� and baOzb�t �h �sit.� do not take a direct object and are not marked by anypostposition in the present or future tense. Subjects in such cases are controlled by the verb agreement.

1. vah jaata hO. vah ja:ta: h�. he go-ptc isHe goes.

2. Aimat Gar jaaegaa.amit ghar ja:ega:.Amit home go-futAmit will go home.

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Besides verb agreement, subjects demonstrate a number of other properties which are explained below. Intransitive verbs in the past tense take their subjects in the direct case.

3. vah bahut qak ga[-.vah bahut thak gai:.she very tired aux She was dead tired.

4. Aimat samaya pr Aayaa.amit samay par a:ya:.Amit time at came Amit came on time.

Some intransitive verbs, such as Kola khel �play� and laD, lar� �fight,� may sometimes be used as transitives when they take abstract nouns as objects.

Intransitive Transitive Kolanaa khelna: to play Kola Kolanaa khel khelna: to play a gamelaD,a[- lar�a:i: fight laD,a[- laD,naa lar�a:i: lar�na: fight a battle

5. maaohna Kolaa.mohan khela:. Mohan played.

5a. maaohna Kola Kolaa.mohan ne khel khela:.Mohan played a game. Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs, such as pZ, par�h �read,� ilaK likh �write,� laa la:�bring,� do de �give,� lao le �take,� and kr kar �do,� take direct objects, and in the past tense they require their subjects must be marked with the ergative case markers agreeing with the object in gender and number.

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6. ]maa nao iktaba pZ,I.uma: ne kita:b par�hi:.Uma-erg book-fs read-fsUma read a book.

7. Amar nao AK,baar K,rIda. amar ne axba:r xari:da:. Amar-erg newspaper-ms bought-ms Amar bought a newspaper.

Some transitive verbs are derived from intransitives by certain vocalic changes to the verb roots.

Intransitive Transitive mar mar die maar ma:r killCp chap be printed Cap cha:p printkT kat� be cut kaT ka:t� cut igar gir fall igara gira: fell ipsa pis be ground pIsa pi:s grindbaMd bandh be tied baaMd ba:ndh tie Kula khul be open Kaola khol open]z ut�h rise ]za ut�ha: raise jaga jag wake up jagaa jaga: awakenfOla ph�l stretch fOlaa ph�la: spread

idK dikh be able to see doK dekh seebana ban be made banaa bana: makeGaUma ghu:m go round GaUmanaa ghuma: turn round daOD, d�r� run daOD,a d�r�a: make x race

In certain cases besides vocalic changes, some consonantal changesalso take place.

Intransitive Transitive TUT t �u:t� break taoD, tor� break ibak bik be sold baoca bec sellfT phat � be torn faD, pha:r� tearsaao so: be asleep saulaa sula: to make x to sleepbana ban be made banaa bana: to make

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A few transitive verbs like baaola bol �to speak,� samaJa samjh �to understand� and BaUla bhu:l �to forget� are sometimes used asintransitives and do not take an ergative case marker.

8. maOM baaolaa/ samaJaa/ BaUlaa. m�� bola: / samjha: / bhu:la:.I said/ understood/ forgot. Ditransitive Verbs

Some verbs like donaa dena: �to give,� saunaa suna: �to tell,� baocanaa becna: �to sell� are called ditransitives. Ditransitives take three arguments, namely, subject, object, and indirect objects. Indirect objects are always marked in the dative. Other arguments follow the transitive pattern noted above.

9. Amar nao ]maa kao iktaba dI.amar ne uma: ko kita:b di:. Amar-erg Uma-dat book-fs gave-fs Amar gave a book to Uma.

10. ]maa nao baccao kao khanaI saunaa[-.uma: ne bacce ko kaha:ni: suna:i:.Uma-erg child-dat story-fs told-fsUma told a story to the child. Causative Verbs

Casuative verbs may be derived from transitive verbs by adding causative suffixes. They include the transitive verbs derived from intransitives. Causative verbs are, therefore, invariably transitive and take the same forms as other transitive verbs. There are two types of causative forms: causal I and causal II.

Causal I forms

Causal I verbs are formed by adding the causal suffix -a: to the transitive verb form. As a result of adding this suffix, certainmorphophonemic changes take place.

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(a) Consonant ending roots with short vowels remain unchanged.

Transitive Causal I kr kar do kra kara: make x do sauna sun listen saunaa suna: make x tellpZ, par�h study pZ,a par�ha: teach x

(b) The long vowels of the verb roots are shortened. The vowels e /e/ and [- /i:/ change to [ /i/.

Transitive Causal I doK dekh see idKa dikha: show saIK si:kh learn isaKa sikha: make x learn

(c) The long vowel ending verb roots are shortened and the suffix-laa -la: instead of -Aa-a:, is added to derive the first causal forms. As a result of adding the causative suffix to the verb root, the vowels e /e/ and Aa /a:/ change to [/i/, and Aao /o/ changes to /u/.

Transitive Causal I pI pi: drink iplaa pila: make x drinksaI si: stitch isalaa sila: make x stitchKa kha: eat iKlaa khila: feed x do de give idlaa dila: make x give Qaao dho wash Qaulaa dhula: make x wash

Causal II

Causal II or extended causatives are formed by adding the causal II suffix -vaa -va: to the verb roots.

Causal I Causal IIsaunaa suna: tell saunavaa sunva: cause x to tell pZ,a par�ha: teach pZ,vaa par�hva: cause x to teach y ]za ut�ha: lift ]zvaa ut�hva: make x to lift iplaa pila: make x drink iplavaa pilva: cause x to drink jagaa jaga: awaken jagavaa jagva: cause to awaken Gaumaa ghuma: move Gaumavaa ghumva: cause x to move daOD,a d�r�a: make x run daOD,vaa d�r�va: cause x to run

idlaa dila: cause x give idlavaa dilva: cause x to give y

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iKlaa khila: feed iKlavaa khilva: cause x to feed y banaa bana: make banavaanaa banva:na cause x to make kr kar get done krvaa karva: cause x to do Qaulaa dhula: make x wash Qaulavaa dhulva: cause x to wash

(a) As a result of adding the causal II suffix to the transitive verbroot, the vowel Aao /o/ changes to ] /u/.

taoD, tor� break tuD,vaa tur�va: cause x to break

(b) There are few irregular forms. In the following example, the causal suffix -vaa -va is added to the intransitive verb root ibak bik�sell� instead of its transitive verb form baoca be:c:

baoca bec sell ibakvaa bikva: cause x to sell

(c) In certain cases, the meanings of the first and second causals are the same as in kranaa kara:na:/ krvaanaa karva:na: �to get done� or Qaulaanaadhula:na:/ Qaulavaanaa dhulva:na: �to get washed.�

11. maaÐ nao baccao kao dUQa iplaayaa.mã: ne bacce ko du:dh pila:ya:. mother-erg child to milk drink-caus-past The mother made the child drink milk.

11a. maaÐ nao baccao kao nasa- sao dUQa iplavaayaa.mã: ne bacce ko nars se du:dh pilva:ya:. mother-er child to nurse by milk drink-causeThe mother caused the child to drink milk from the nurse. Dative Verbs

Most dative verbs fall into the stative-inchoative category of verbs.They represent a small class of verbs but are very frequently used. They can be derived by substituting the intransitive verbs haonaa hona:�to be,� and Aanaa a:na: �to come� in place of krnaa karna: �to do� in active/conjunct verbs as given below.

Stative Inchoative Active psaMd haonaa psaMd Aanaa psaMd krnaapasand hona: pasand a:na: pasand karna: to like

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yaad haonaa yaad Aanaa yaad krnaaya:d hona: ya:d a:na: ya:d karna: to remember

pta haonaa pta krnaapata: hona: � pata: karna: to find out

12. ]sakao yah iktaba psaMd hO.usko yeh kita:b pasand h�.he-dat this book like isHe likes this book.

12a. ]sakao yah iktaba psaMd Aa[-.usko yeh kita:b pasand a:i:.he-dat this book like came He liked this book.

12b. ]sanao yah iktaba psaMd kI.usne yeh kita:b pasand ki:.he-erg this book like didHe liked this book.

13. ]sakao saarI baat yaad hOO.usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d h�.he-dat all matter remember is He remembers the whole matter.

13a. ]sakao saarI baat yaad Aa[-.usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d a:i:.he-dat all matter remember cameHe remembered the whole matter.

13b. ]sanao saarI baat yaad kI.usne sa:ri: ba:t ya:d ki:.he-erg all matter remember did He remembered the whole matter.

14. ]sakaoo yah baat pta hO.usko yah ba:t pata: h�. he-dat this matter know be He knows this matter.

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14a. ]sanao yah baat pta kI.usne yah ba:t pata: ki:.he-dat this matter find did He found out this thing. Conjunct Verbs

A conjunct verb consists of a noun or an adjective and a verb, which takes all the verbal inflections. The verbs may be transitive or intransitive. The most frequent verbs used in conjunct verbalconst+ructions are krnaa karna: �to do� and haonaa hona: �to be.� Other verbs used are donaa dena: �to give,� Aanaa a:na: �to come,� and laganaa lagna: �to feel.�

15. maOMnao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa.m��ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:.I-erg self�s work finish did I finished my work.

15a. yah kama samaaPt huAa. yeh ka:m sama:pt hua:.this work finish be-past This work is done.

16. drvaaja,a baMd krao.darva:za: band karo.door close do-impClose the door.

16a. drvaaja,a baMd huAa.darva:za: band hua:.door close be-past The door was closed.

One class of conjunct verbs is formed by the combination of a noun and an intransitive verb, which requires the subject to be marked inthe oblique case. This class includes psychological predicates such as gaussaa Aanaa gussa: a:na: �to be angry,� BaUK laganaa bhu:kh lagna:�to be hungry,� Pyaasa laganaa pya:s lagna:, �to be thirsty,� trsa Aanaa taras a:na: �to have pity.� It also includes non-volitional verbs such as idKa[- donaadikha:i: dena: �to be seen.�

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17. Amar kao gaussaa Aayaa.amar ko gussa: a:ya:.Amar-dat anger cameAmar was angry.

18. saunaIta kao BaUK/ Pyaasa lagaI.suni:ta ko bhu:kh/pya:s lagi:.Sunita-dat hunger/thirst struck Sunita was hungry/thirsty.

19. maaohna kao garIba pr trsa Aayaa.mohan ko gari:b par taras a:ya:.Mohan-dat poor on pity came Mohan took pity on the poor.

20. ]sakao AMtr idKta nahIM.usko antar dikhta: nah�:.he-dat difference see-ptc neg He is not able to see the difference. Compound Verbs

Compound verbs in Hindi are combination of Verb 1 + Verb 2 (+ inflections). Whereas Verb 1 (also called main verb) expressesgeneral meaning and occurs in its stem form, verb 2, which is calledan explicator/operator, takes all the inflections. The explicatorsbelong to a small group of verbs. The original meaning of the explicator is lost. They add certain aspectual values, such ascompletion of an action, benefaction, or intensification, to the mainverb. The most frequent explicators are listed below with their actual meaning and the aspectual meanings they add to main verbs.

Explicators Aspectual Values Aa a: come change of state from within jaa ja: go change of state lao le take action for or toward others pD, par� fall action for or towards selfdo de give change of state, suddenness jaa ja: go direction away, simple completion Dala d �a:l throw speed, recklessness, relief, completionCaoD, chor� release psychological separation, relief

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rK rakh put/keep proactiveness, future use in view baOz b�t�h sit action for or towards self

]z ut�h rise action for or towards selfphuMca pah�c reach action for completion, direction cala cal walk direction away, completion mar mar die completion, lack of controlmaar ma:r kill change of state, suddenness

Thus, a compound verb is made of two verbs, the first, the main verb which expresses its general meaning and, the second, an explicator/operator which is conjugated for different inflections. A large number of compound verbs are formed by the combination of verbs in which the first verb represents the meaning and the explicator takes all the grammatical inflections. Examples of such verbs are: Aa jaanaa a: ja:na: �to come,� imala jaanaa mil ja:na: �to get,� Ka laonaa kha: lena: �to eat,� pI laonaa pi: lena: �to drink,� lao Aanaa le a:na: �to bring,� KrId laonaa xari:d lena: �to buy,� cala donaa cal dena: �to leave,� kr baOznaa kar b�t �hna: �to do,� kr Dalanaa kar d �a:lna: �to do,� kr CaoD,naa kar chor�na: �to do,� do donaa de dena: �to give.�

21. saBaI baccao samaya pr Aa gae.sabhi: bacce samay par a: gaye.all children time on came went All the children came on time.

22. baccao nao saoba Ka ilayaa.bacce ne seb kha: liya:. child-erg apple eat took The child ate an apple.

23. vah saaro pOsao lao gayaa.vah sa:re p�se le gaya:. he all money take went He took all the money.

24. ]sanao na[- kar K,rId laI.usne nai: ka:r xari:d li:. he-erg new car buy took-fsHe bought a new car.

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25. maOMnao Apnaa kama kr Dalaa.m��ne apna: ka:m kar d �a:la:.I-erg self�s work do threw I completed my work.

There are verbal phrases in which there are two or more inflexible verbs, such as pIta gayaa pi:ta gaya: �went on drinking,� saunata rha sunta: raha: �kept on listing,� saaoyaa pD,a rha soya: par�a: raha: �remained sleeping,� calaa gayaa cala: gaya: �gone.�

26. vah saarI rat caaya pIta gayaa.vah sa:ri: ra:t ca:y pi:ta: gaya:. he all night tea drink-ptc went-ms He kept on drinking tea throughout the night.

27. vah maorI baat Qyaana sao saunata rha.vah meri: ba:t dhya:n se sunta: raha:.he my talk attention with listened-ptc remained-ms He kept on listening to my story with attention.

28. vah saara idna saaoyaa pD,a rha.vah sa:ra: din soya: par�a: raha:.he whole day slept fell remained-msHe kept on sleeping for the whole day.

3.4.3. Tense

Tense and aspect are major grammatical categories of the verbal system in Hindi. There are three grammatical aspects: habitual, progressive, and perfective. Each of them is expressed by marking the verbal stems.

Hindi has six tenses: present, past, future, present perfect, habitualpast, and past perfect. The present tense represents an ongoing action, a habitual, repeated or characteristic action, or simply expresses a fact.

1. Amar Gar jaa rha hO.amar ghar ja: raha: h�. Amar home go-prog isAmar is going home.

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2. vah kailaja maoM pZ,ta hO.vah ka:lej m� par�hta: h�. he college in study-pre-hab. be He studies in college.

The verb in (1) is in the progressive aspect and in (2) in the habitual aspect.

The past tense represents an ongoing action or an action completed in the past.

3. Amar idllaI jaa rha qaa.amar dilli: ja: raha: tha:.Amar Delhi-obl go-prog was Amar was going to Delhi.

4. ]sanao AK,baar pZ,a.usne axba:r par�ha:.he-erg newspaper read-perf He read the newspaper.

The verb in (3) is in the progressive aspect and in (4) is in the perfect aspect.

The future tense represents an action yet to take place or a state yet to come into being.

5. ]maa kla idllaI jaaegaI.uma: kal dilli: ja:egi:.Uma tomorrow Delhi-obl go-futUma will go to Delhi tomorrow.

The present perfect tense represents a completed act the effect of which is still present.

6. ]sanao yah jagah doKI hO.usne yah jagah dekhi: h�.he-erg this place see-perf beHe has seen this place.

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The habitual past tense represents an act habitually done in the past.

7. vah hmaoSaa maohnat krtaa qaa.vah hame�a: mehnat karta: tha:.he always hard work do-hab be-past He always used to work hard.

The past perfect tense represents an action completed in the past or before a certain past time.

8. Amar prsaaoM savaoro Aayaa qaa.amar parsõ savere a:ya: tha:. Amar day before yesterday morning-obl came be-past Amar had come the day before yesterday in the morning.

3.4.4. Aspect

Verbal forms indicating one of these aspects are specified for one of the four tenses: present, past, presumptive, and subjunctive. Thecombination of one of the three aspects with the four different tensesresults in the production of various aspectual-tenses: present-habitual, past-habitual, presumptive-habitual, subjunctive-habitual, present-progressive, past-progressive, presumptive-progressive, subjunctive-progressive, present-perfective, past-perfective, presumptive-perfective, and subjunctive-perfective. It also permitsthe simple-perfective form. Besides these aspectual verb forms,some non-aspectual verb forms of Hindi are the future, rootsubjunctive, and the imperative and infinitive forms. They will be discussed separately. Habitual Aspect

The habitual aspectual-tenses are formed by adding the following suffixes to the verb stems agreeing with the subject in gender and number:

Masculine FeminineSg Pl Sg / Pl-ta -ta: -to -te -tI -ti:

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They are followed by appropriate forms of the auxiliary verb haonaa hona:. Present and past habitual forms are used to express habitual actions or the state of affairs viewed from the perspective of thepresent and the past respectively.

Present-habitual 1. maOM Gar raoja, Aata/ AatI hUÐM.

m�� ghar roz a:ta:/a:ti: h�:.I home daily come-ptc-ms/-fs be I come home daily.

2. hma Gar raoja, Aato / AatI hOM.ham ghar roz a:te/a:ti: h��. we home daily come-ptc-mp/-fp beWe come home daily.

3. tU Gar raoja, jaata/ jaatI hO.tu: ghar roz ja:ta:/ja:ti: h�. you home daily go-ptc-ms/go-fs be You go home daily.

4. tuma Gar raoja, jaato/ jaatI hao.tum ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: home daily go-ptc-mp/go-fs be You go home daily.

5. Aap Gar raoja, jaato/ jaatI hOM.a:p ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: h��. you home daily go-m/go-f be You go home daily.

6. yah/ vah Sahr jaata/ jaatI hO.yah/vah �ahar ja:ta:/ja:ti: h�.(s)he city go-ptc-ms/go-fs be He/she goes to the city.

7. vao Sahr jaato/ jaatI �ahar ja:te/ja:ti: h��.they city go-ptc-mp/go-f be He/she/they goes/goes/go to the city.

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Past-habitual8. maOM raoj,a baaj,aar jaata qaa /jaatI qaI.

m�� roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:. I daily market go-ptc-ms was /go-fs was I used to go to the market daily.

9. tU raoja, baaja,ar jaata qaa/ jaatI qaI.tu: roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:. you daily market go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was You used to go to the market daily.

10. tuma/ Aap raoja, dF,tr jaato qao/jaatI qaIM.tum/a:p roz daftar ja:te the/ja:ti: th� daily office go-ptc-ms were/go-ptc-fs were You used to go to the office daily.

11. vah savaoro gaaÐva jaata qaa/ jaatI qaI.vah savere ga:�: ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:.he/she morning-abl village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was He/She used to go to the village in the morning.

12. vao Saama kao gaaÐva jaato qao / jaatI �a:m ko ga:�: ja:te the/ja:ti: th�:.they evening-dat at village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was They used to go to the village in the evening.

Present-habitual in conjunction with the adverb ABaI abhi: �right away�indicates that an action is to be carried out in the near future.

13. maOM ABaI jaata hUÐ.m�� abhi: ja:ta: h�:. I right away am I�ll go right away.

In the negative construction of the present-habitual form, the present form of the verb haonaa hona: is usually deleted.

14. vah saubah caaya nahIM pIta.vah subah ca:y nah�: pi:ta:.he morning-abl tea neg drink-ptc.msHe doesn�t drink tea in the morning.

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Past-habitual also indicates that an action has taken place in remotepast.

15. ]maa haoTla maoM gaanaa gaatI qaI.uma: hot�al m� ga:na: ga:ti: thi:.Uma hotel in song sing-ptc was Uma used to sing at the hotel.

Presumptive-habitual Presumptive-habitual forms are used to indicate that an action or state of affairs is both habitual and presumed, but not known definitely.

16. maOM Aata hao}Ðgaa/ AatI hao}ÐgaI.m�� a:ta: ho�:ga: /a:ti: ho�:gi:. I come-ms be-pre.hab/ go-fs be-pre.hab. I would be coming.

17. hma Aato haoMga/o AatI haoMgaIM.ham a:te hõge/a:ti: hõg�:.We would be coming.

18. tU/ vah Aata haogaa/ AatI haogaI. tu:/vah a:ta: hoga:/a:ti: hogi:.You/he would be coming.

19. tuma/ Aap/ vao Aato haMogao / AatI haoMgaI.tum/a:p/ve a:te hõge/ a:ti: hõgi:.You/they would be coming.

Subjunctive-habitualSubjunctive-habitual forms are used to indicate actions that are both habitual and hypothetical, contingent, or speculative, but not directlyguaranteed to take place.

20. maOM caahta hUÐ vah AaeÐ.m�� ca:hta: h�: vah a:y�.I want him/her to come.

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21. maorI [cCa hO Aap yah iktaba pZ,oM.meri: iccha: h� a:p yeh kita:b par�h�.I want you to read this book.

22. vah Gar pr kama krta qaa/ krtI qaI.vah ghar par ka:m karta: tha: /karti: thi:. he/she home at work do-ms/do-fs was He/she used to work at home. Progressive Aspect

Progressive aspect verbs are formed by adding the following auxiliary forms immediately after the verb stems and appropriate forms of the verb hona: �to be� and they agree with the person, gender, and number of the subject of the verb:

Masculine FeminineSg Pl Sg / Plrha raha: rho rahe rhI rahi:

The progressive aspect is used to indicate actions or states of affairs of a continuous nature or extended through time. There are two primary categories: present-progressive and past-progressive.

Present-progressive23. maOM Gar jaa rha/ jaa rhI hUÐ.

m�� ghar ja: raha:/ja: rahi: h�:.I home go-prog-ms/ go-prog-fs am I am going home.

24. maOM/ hma/ vao Gar jaa rho/ jaa rhI hOM.ham/ve ghar ja: rahe/ ja rahi: h��.we/they home go-prog-mpl/-prog-fpl be-pl We/they are going home.

25. tU kailaja sao Aa rha hO/ rhI hO.tu: ka:lej se a: raha: h� / rahi: h�.you-fam/he/she college from come-prog-ms /-prog-fs be-sg You are coming from the college.

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26. tuma Kanaa Ka rho/ rhI hao.tum kha:na: kha: rahe/rahi: pl food eat-prog-mpl/-fpl be You are eating food.

27. Aap/ vao caaya pI rho hOM.a:p/ve ca:y pi: rahe h��.you/they tea drink-prog are You /they are drinking tea.

Past-progressive28. maOM gaa rha qaa/ rhI qaI.

m�� ga: raha: tha:/ rahi: thi:. I sing-prog was-ms/sing-prog was-fs I was singing.

29. tU saoba Ka rha qaa/ rhI qaI.tu: seb kha: raha: tha:/ rahi: apple eat-prog-ms was/ -prog-fs was You were eating an apple.

30. tuma iktaba pZ, rho qao / rhI qaI.tum kita:b par�h rahe/rahi: book read-prog-mp/ -fp be You are reading a book.

31. Aap p~ ilaK rho qao.a:p patr likh rahe the. you-hon letter write-prog beYou were writing a letter.

Presumptive-progressivePresumptive-progressive forms are used to indicate that an action or state of affairs is extended in time and presumed to be occuring.

32. ]maa idllaI sao Aa rhI haogaI.uma: dilli: se a: rahi: hogi:. Uma Delhi from come-prog be-presumptive Uma must be coming from Delhi.

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Subjunctive-progressive33. samBava hO vah jaa rha hao.

sambhav h� vah ja: raha: ho.possible is he go-prog be-subjIt is possible he would be going.

34. maumaikna hO vao Aa rho haMo.mumkin h� ve a: rahe hõ.possible is they come-prog be-subj It is possible they would be coming. Perfective Aspect

Perfective aspect indicates an action or state of affairs that has beencompleted. There are five sets of perfective forms in Hindi: simple-perfective, present-perfective, past-perfective, presumptive-perfective and subjunctive-perfective. The following perfect participle suffixes are added to the main verb stems. In constructionswith intransitive verbs, they agree with the subject in gender and number. In constructions with transitive verbs, they agree with the object�s gender and number.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl -Aa -a: -e -e -[- -i: -[-M -�:

These suffixes are added to both intransitive and transitive verbs.

Verb Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

igar gir fall igara gira: igaro gire igarI giri: igarIM gir�: cala cal walk calaa cala: calao cale calaI cali: calaI cal�:MpZ, par�h read pZ,a par�ha: pZ,o par�he pZ,I par�hi: pZ,IM par�h�: ilaK likh write ilaKa likha: ilaKo likhe ilaKI likhi: ilaKIM likh�:

In vowel-ending verb stems, the glide -ya -y is inserted before themasculine singular ending -Aa -a: is added to the verb stem.

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Verb Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

Aa a: come Aayaa a:ya: Aae a:e Aa[- a:i: Aa[-M a:�: saao so sleep saaoyaa soya: saaoe soe saao[- soi: saao[-M so�: saI si: sew isayaa siya: isae sie saI si: saIM s�: Ko khe row Koyaa kheya: Koyao kheye Ko[- khei: Ko[-M khe�: jaa ja: go gayaa gaya: gae gae ga[- gai: ga[-M ga�: Ka kha: eat Kayaa kha:ya: Kae kha:e Ka[- kha:i: Ka[-M kha:�:

Notice that the verbs saao so �sleep� and saI si: �sew� have alternate feminine plural forms; the verb Ko khe �row� has the feminine plural form with inserted ya y glide; the verb jaa ja: �go� has an irregular past perfective form.

Some transitive verbs have irregular perfective participle forms.

Verb Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

kr kar do ikyaa kiya: ike kiye kI ki: kIM k�:lao le take ilayaa liya: ilae liye laI li: laIM l�: pI pi: drink ipyaa piya: ipyao piye pI pi: pIM p�: do de give idyaa diya: idyao diye dI di: dIM d�:

Simple-perfective The simple-perfective form appears without verbal auxiliaries.

35. laD,ka/laD,kI Gar gayaa/ ga[-.lar�ka:/lar�ki: ghar ga:ya:/ ga:yi:. boy/girl home went-ms/went-fs The boy/girl went home.

36. maOMnao /]sanao/ ]nhaoMnao tsvaIr doKI. m�ne� /hamne/usne/unhõne tasvi:r dekhi:.I-erg/we-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg picture-fs saw-fs I/we/(s)he/they saw the picture.

Present-perfective37. maOM kaolakta gayaa hUÐ.

m�� kolkata: gaya: h�:.

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I Kolkata went be-pre I have gone to Kolkata.

38. maOMnao/ hmanao /]nhaoMnao kaolakta doKa hO. m��ne/hamne/unhõne kolkata: dekha: h�.I-erg/we-erg/thy-erg Kolkata see-perf be-pre I/we/they have seen Kolkata.

Past-perfective39. maOM/ tU /vah baaja,ar gayaa qaa.

m��/tu:/vah ba:za:r gaya: tha:I/you/(s)he market went-perf be-past I/you/(s)he had gone to the market.

40. maOMnao/ tumanao /]nhaoMnao/ Kanaa Kayaa qaa. m��ne/tumne/unhõne kha:na: kha:ya: tha: I-erg/you-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg food eat-perf be-past I/ you/(s)he/they had eaten the food.

Presumptive-perfective41. vah kla idllaI gayaa haogaa.

vah kal dilli: gaya: hoga:.he tomorrow Delhi went be-pre.perf He would have gone to Delhi tomorrow.

42. ]sanao kla yah iktaba pZ,I haogaI. usne kal yah kita:b par�hi: hogi:.he-erg tomorrow this book read-fs be-pre.perf He would have read this book tomorrow.

Subjunctive-perfective43. vah Aayaa hao.

vah a:ya: ho.he came be-subj.perfHe might have come.

44. p%to poD, sao igaro haoM. patte per� se gire hõ. leaves tree from fell be-subj.perf The leaves may have fallen from the tree.

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3.4.5. Mood

In Hindi there are three moods: indicative, imperative, and optative. Indicative Mood

The indicative represents the action as a fact or makes a query about it. The verb can be used in habitual (hab), progressive (prog), or perfective (perf) aspects. The present and past participle forms of these verbs have been explained above. The following aspectual marks are added to the verb stem bol �say� in the indicative mood.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl

Habitual baaolata baaolato baaolatI baaolatIMbolta: bolte bolti: bolt�:

Progressive baaola rha baaola rho baaola rhI baaola rhIMbol raha: bol rahe bol rahi: bol rah�:

Perfective baaolaa baaolao baaolaI baaolaIMbola: bole boli: bol�:

The above paradigm shows the agreement of indicative mood with gender and number. Imperative Mood

The imperative expresses an action as a command, a request, a warning, a prohibition, etc. The imperative is restricted to the futureand cannot refer to the present or past tenses. Since the imperative denotes a command, request, etc., its proper domain is the second person. Indirect commands or requests made to a third person are expressed by the subjunctive form. In imperative constructions, the subject is omitted and can be guessed from both the context and the form of the verb. The verb agrees with the second person subject which has three second person pronominal forms: (i) intimate, (ii) familiar, and (iii) polite.

The intimate imperative forms are used in issuing orders/commands for those who are usually addressed with the intimate second person pronoun tU tu: �you.� The familiar imperatives are used in issuing commands to all those who are normally addressed by the familiar

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second-person pronoun tuma tum �you.� Polite imperatives are used for making requests to those who are normally addressed by the second person pronoun Aap a:p �you.�

Second Person Verb Intimate Familiar Polite Aa a: come Aa a: AaAao a:o Aa[e a:iyejaa ja: go jaa ja: jaaAao ja:o jaa[e ja:iyeKa kha: eat Ka kha: KaAao kha:o Ka[e kha:iyepZ, par�h read pZ, par�h pZ,ao par�ho piZ,e par�hiyeilaK ,likh write ilaK likh ilaKao likho ilaiKe likhiyeK,rId xari:d buy K,rId xari:d K,rIdao xari:do K,rIide xari:diye

In the above, the intimate forms are the same as the verb stem forms; in familiar forms, -Aao -o is added to the verb stem form and in polite forms -[e -iye is added.

1. (tU ) Aa /jaa /Ka /pZ, /ilaK /K,rId. (tu:) a:/ ja:/kha: / par�h /likh/xari:d you-intimate come/go/eat/read/write/buy Come/go/eat/read/write/buy.

1a. (tuma) AaAao /jaaAao /KaAao /pZao, / ilaKao /K,rIdao.(tum) a:o/ja:o/kha:o/ par�ho/likho/xari:doyou-familiar come/go/eat/read/write/buy

1b. (Aap) Aa[e/ jaa[e/ Ka[e /piZe, /ilaiKe /K,rIide. (a:p) a:iye/ja:iye/ kha:iye/pr�hiye/likhiye/khari:diye.

(you-polite) come/go/read/write/ buy Please come/go/eat/read/write/buy

A few verbs have irregular familiar and polite forms.

do de give do de dao do dIijae di:jiyelao le take lao le laao lo laIijae li:jiyekr kar do kr kar krao karo kire kariye/kIijae ki:jiye

In the above forms, - Aao -o is added to the vowel-ending verb stems in the intimate form and the stem vowel is elided. The suffix -[-ijae -i:jiye is added in the polite form and the stem vowel is elided. The

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verb kr kar �do� has an alternate form kire kariye �do� in its politeform, as well.

2. (tU ) do / lao / kr(tu:) de/le/kar( give/take/do

2a. (tuma) dao / laao / krao(tum) do/lo/karo( give/take/do

2b. (Aap ) dIijae / laIijae / kIijae(a:p) di:jiye/li:jiye/ki:jiye (polite) give/take/do

The operators take the same imperative forms in the compound verb constructions.

3. yah iktaba lao laao.yah kita:b le lo. this book take-explicator Take this book.

3a. yah iktaba lao laIijae.yah kita:b le li:jiye.this book take explicator-polite Please take this book.

4. drvaaja,a baMd kr laaoo.darva:za: band kar lo.door close do take-explicator-familiar Close the door.

4a. drvaaja,a baMd kr laIijae. darva:za: band kar li:jiye.door close do take-explicator-politePlease close the door.

In negative or prohibitive imperative constructions, the negativemarkers na /nah�� �no� may precede the verb in the infinitive form.

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However, it is optional with the use of prohibitive morpheme mat�don�t.�

5. dvaa[- mat / na / nahIM Kanaa / Ka laonaa.dava:i: mat/na/nah�: kha:na:/kha: lena:.medicine neg eat-inf./eat take-inf Don�t take medicine.

5a. dvaa[- mat Ka laIijae.dava:i: mat kha: li:jiye. medicine neg eat take-inf. Don�t take medicine. Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive forms are formed by adding certain suffixes to the verb stems that agree with the subjects in person and number, e.g.,

Sg Pl 1st person -}Ð -�: -eÐ -�2nd person (familiar) -e -e -Aao -o2nd person (polite) -eÐ -� -eÐ -�3rd person -e -e -eÐ -�

The subjunctive forms of the verb haonaa hona: �to be� have been givenin 3.4.1.(d). Here we will illustrate the subjunctive forms of a few other verbs.

6. maOM jaa}Ð / k$Ð / pZ,UÐ.m�� ja:�:/kar�:/ par�h�: I go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6a. hma jaaeÐ / kroM / pZ,oM.ham ja:�/kar�/ par�h�we go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6b. tU jaae / kro / pZ,o.tu: ja:e/kare/ par�he you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

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6c. tuma jaaAao / krao /pZ,ao.tum ja:o/karo/ par�hoyou go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6d. Aap jaaeÐ / kroM / pZ,oM.a:p ja:�/kar�/ par�h�you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6e. vah Aae / kro / pZ,o. vah a:e/kare/ par�he he come-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6f. vaoo AaeÐ /kro/M pZ, a:�/kar�/ par�h�they come-subj/do-subj /read-subj

The stem final vowels -[- -i: and -} -u:, as in pI pi: �drink,� and CU chu: �touch�, are shortened in length as -[ -i and -] -u before the subjunctive verb suffixes are added to them.

7. maOM ip}Ð /Cu}Ð.m�� pi�:/chu�: I drink-subj /touch-subj

7a. hma ipeÐM /CueÐM.ham pi�/chu�we drink-subj/touch-subj

7b. tU ipe /Cue.tu: pie/chueyou drink-subj/touch-subj

7c. tuma ipAao /CuAao.tum pio/chuoyou drink-subj/touch-subj

7d. Aap ipeÐM / CueÐ.a:p pi�/chu�yiu drink-subj/touch-subj

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7e. vah ipe / Cue.vah pie/chuehe drink-subj/touch-subj

7f. vao ipeÐ /CueÐ.ve pi�/chu�they drink-subj/touch-subj

3.4.6. Voice

The verbal stem can also be used to indicate the passive voice. Itindicates the subject of a verb in the passive voice and it has agreement of number, person, and gender.

1. ]maa sao p~ na ilaKa gayaa. uma: se patr na likha: gaya:. Uma by letter neg write-pass Uma couldn�t write a letter.

2. ]sasao calaa na cala: na gaya:.she-by walk neg be able She couldn�t walk.

3. ]sasao yah kama nahIM hao yah ka:m nah�: ho sakta:she-by this work neg be able-model She would not be able to do this work.

4. mauJasao iktaba igar ga[-.mujh-se kita:b gir book fell downThe book fell from my hands.

5. ]sasao Aa[-naa TUT a:yi:na: t�u:t� gaya:.she-by mirror break explicator The mirror was broken by her.

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6. puranao AKbaaraoM kao fOMka gayaa.pura:ne akhba:rõ ko ph�ka: gaya:.old newspapers-obl dat thrown explicator The old newspapers were thrown away.

It can also be used to express �from�or �through�

7. muaJasao AMga`oja,I pZ, laao.mujh-se ãgrezi: par�h English learn explicator Learn English from me.

It is used with the indirect objects of verbs meaning �to tell, say, ask, ask for, beg, demand, claim, request,�

8. ]sanao ]maa sao kha ik � usne uma: se kaha: ki � he-erg Uma said that He told Uma that �

9. ]maa nao mauJasao pUCa ik � uma: ne mujh se pu:cha: �Uma er me-obl from askedUma asked me �

10. Aimat nao ]sasao p`aqa-naa kIamit ne us-se pra:rthana: ki:. Amit-erg him/her request made Amit requested him/her.

3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms

We have discussed various finite verbal forms under tense, aspect, mood, and voice above. We will now discuss the non-finite forms of verbs which include infinitives and participles. Infinitives

Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix -naa -na: to the verb stems: Aanaa a:na: �to come,� jaanaa ja:na: �to go,� krnaa karna: �to do,� ilaKnaalikhna: �to write,� etc. Infinitives are used both as nouns and as

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adjectives. An infinitive is usually an abstract noun and, being anabstract noun, it is not used in the plural.

1. jaldI saaonaa zIk hO.jaldi: sona: t�hi:kh h�. early sleep-inf good is It is good to go to sleep early.

2. ]sako Aanao maoM dor hu[-.uske a:ne m� der hui:.he-gen-obl come-inf-obl in late be-fsgHe/she arrived late.

3. maOMnao ]sao jaanao sao raoka.m��ne use ja:ne se roka:.I-erg he-dat go-inf-obl from stop-pst I stopped him from going.

Despite being a noun, the infinite can take an object.

4. vah kama krnao maoM toja, hO.vah ka:m karne m� tez h�. he work do-inf-obl in fast is He is prompt in (his) work.

The postposition kao ko �to� is not added when the infinitive is used as an object.

5. vah iktaba laanaa BaUla gayaa.vah kita:b la:na: bhu:l gaya:. he book bring-inf forget go-operator-pst He forgot to bring the book.

6. maOM ]sao imalanao jaa}Ðgaa.m�� use milne ja:�:ga:.I him-obl meet-inf-obl go-fut I will go to see him.

Infinitives are frequently used as adjectives in combination with verbs denoting obligation, necessity, requirement, or compulsion like caah ca:h �want,� hao ho �be,� and pD, par� �compulsion. The

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compounds made are passive in meaning.

7. maOM caaya pInaa caahta hUÐM.m�� ca:y pi:na: cahta: h�: I tea drink-inf want-ptc am I want to drink tea.

8. mauJao idllaI jaanaa pD,a.mujhe dilli: ja:na: par�a:.I-dat Delhi go-inf fell(explicator) I had to go to Delhi.

9. ]sao kama Saama tk samaaPt krnaa qaa.use ka:m �a:m tak sama:pt karna: tha:he-obl work evening up to finish do-inf be-past-obligatory He had to finish the work by evening.

When an infinitive is transitive, it is used as an adjective for its object and changes its ending -naa -na: to -naI -ni: or -nao -ne.

10. ]sao pOsao laanao hMO.use p�se la:ne h��. he-obl money bring-inf-obl-pl be-obligatory He has to bring money.

11. ]sao / ]sakao dvaa[- pInaI pD,ogaI.use/usko dava:i: pi:ni: par�egi:.he-obl tea medicine drink-inf-fs necessary-fut He has to drink medicine.

12. maOMnao ]sakI madd krnaI��ne uski: madad karni: ca:hi:.I-erg his/her help-f. do-inf.fs want-fs I wanted to help him/her. Participles

Participles in Hindi are largely verbal in nature and function as adjectives and adverbs. They are of two types: imperfective and perfective. Whereas imperfective participles represent incomplete orunfinished activities, perfective participles designate completed

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verbal activities. Imperfective Participles

When used adjectivally, imperfective participles are formed by adding the suffixes -ta -ta: (ms), -to -te (mp), -tI -ti (fs), and -tIM -t�:(fp) that are made to agree with the noun in gender and number. Adjectival imperfective participles are expanded with one of the simple perfective forms of haonaa hona: �to be,� like huAa hua: (ms), and hue hue (p), and hu[- hui: (fs).

1. daOD,ta huAa AadmaI Ék gayaa.d�r�ta: hua: a:dmi: ruk gaya:. run-imp.ptc be-ms man stop went The running man stopped.

2. daOD,to hue baccao Saaor kr rho hOM.d�r�te hue bacce �or kar rahe h�.�run-imp.ptc be-mp children noise do-prog.asp are The running children are making noise.

3. calatI hu[- basa Ék ga[-.calti: hui: bas ruk gai:. move-imp.ptc-fs bus stop went The moving bus stopped.

When used adverbially, the suffix -to -te is added to the verb stemand is followed by hue hue.

4. dF,tr sao laaOTto hue maOMnao fla KrIdo.daftar se l�t�te hue m��ne phal from return-while I-erg fruit bought I bought fruit while returning from the office.

5. baccao skUla jaato hue gaa rho qaoo.bacce sku:l ja:tee hue ga: rahe the. children school go-while sing-prog.asp were The children were singing songs while going to school.

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Adverbial imperfective participles may be reduplicated.

6. vah pOdla calato - calato qak gayaa.vah p�dal calte-calte thak gaya:.he on foot walk-ptc walk-ptc tired went He was tired of walking on foot.

7. vah Ct sao igarto - igarto baca gayaa.vah chat se girte-girte bac gaya:he roof from fall-ptc-fall-ptc save went He almost fell from the roof.

Adverbial imperfective participles are used with different timeexpressions.

8. vah Gar jaato samaya maayaUsa qaa.vah ghar ja:te samay ma:yu:s tha:he home go-ptc time sad was He was sad when it was time to go home. Perfective Participles

Perfective participles are formed by adding the adjectival suffixes -Aa -a:, -e -e, and -[- -i: to verb stems agreeing with the noun in person, gender, and number. A few perfective stems are irregular. Perfective participles represent a verbal activity carried through to completion. Perfective participles may be employed eitheradjectivally or adverbially. The adjectival participles are expanded with the forms of huAa hua:, hue hue, and hu[- hui: that agree with the modified noun in person, gender, and number.

9. baOza (huAa ) laD,kab�t �ha: (hua:) lar�ka: the sitting (i.e., seated) boy

9a. baOzo (hue ) laD,kob�t �he (hue) lar�kethe sitting boys

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9b. baOzI (hu[-) laD,kI laD,ikyaaÐ b�t �hi (hui:) lar�ki:/lar�kiyã:the sitting girl/girls

The adjectival participles may precede or follow the noun theyqualify.

10a. kmaIja, QaulaI (hu[-) hO.kami:z dhuli: (hui:) h�. shirt washed (perf-ptc) is The shirt is washed.

10b. QaulaI (hu[-) kmaIja, AlamaarI maoM hO.dhuli: (hui:) kami:z alma:ri: m� h�. washed (ptc) shirt almirah in is The washed shirt is in almirah.

There are two types of adverbial participles. In one type, the invariable suffix �e -e is employed.

11. Ct pr baOzo hue vah gaa rha par b�t�he hue vah ga: raha: tha:.roof at siting-perf.ptc he sing-prog was He was singing while sitting on the roof.

In the other type, the adverbial participle uses the adjectival suffixes �Aa -a:,- e -e, and �[- -i:.

12. na[- kmaIja, phnaI hu[- rmaa baaja,ar jaa rhI qaI.nai: kami:z pahni: hui: rama: baza:r ja: rahi: shirt wear-perf.ptc Rama market go-prog was Wearing a new shirt, Rama was going to market.

The perfective adverbial participles are frequently reduplicated.

13. vah Gar pr baOzo - baOzo qak gayaa.vah ghar par b�t �he-b�t�he thak gaya: he home at sitting-perf.ptc tired went(explicator) He was tired of sitting at home.

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The perfective participles are used to indicate the passing of time.

14. Amar kao AmarIka sao Aae hue dao saala hao gae hOM.amar ko amri:ka: se a:ye hue do sa:l ho gaye h��.Amar-dat America from came-perf.ptc two years elapsed areIt has been two years since Amar came from America. Conjunctive Participles

Conjunctive participles are used to form sentences in which two verbal activities share the same subject and one of the activities is a temporal antecedent of the other. In this construction, the verb of the first clause is used in the verb stem form and is immediately followed by kar, while the verb of the subsequent clause takes allthe conjugation markers.

15. vah Gar phuÐcakr baaja,ar gayaa.vah ghar pah�ckar ba:za:r gaya:.he home reach after-cp market went He went to the market after coming home.

16. ]sanao AK,baar pZ,kr icaT\zI ilaKI.usne axba:r par�h kar cit�t �hi: likhi:. he-erg neewspaper read after-cp letter-fs wrote-fs He wrote a letter after reading the newspaper.

If the verb krnaa karna: �to do� appears in the main clause either independently or as a part of a compound, the form ke is used in place of kr kar.

17. dF,tr ka kama samaaPt krko vah Gar gayaa.daftar ka: ka:m sama:pt karke vah ghar gaya:office of work finish do-cp he home went He went home after finishing the office work. Sometimes the conjunctive clauses are used in the adverbial sense.

18. Amar daOD,kr Aayaa.amar d�r� kar a:ya:. Amar run do-cp came Amar came running.

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19. ]maa mauskrakr baaolaI � uma: muskara kar boli: � Uma smile do-cp said Uma said smilingly �

The conjunctive participle marker kar is also used in certain fixed expressions.

20. maOM ivaSaoYa/ K,asa krko Amar sao imalaa.m�� vi�e�/xa:s karke amar se mila:. I especially do-cp Amar with metI especially met Amar.

21. vah idllaI haokr Aayaa.vah dilli: ho kar a:ya:.he Delhi be do-cp cameHe came via Delhi.

22. ek - ek krko saBaI ivaQyaaqaI- Aae.ek - ek karke sabhhi: vidhya:rthi: a:ye. one one do-cp all students came All the students came one by one.

3.5. Adverbs

An adverb may precede an adjective, a verb, and sometimes another adverb as a qualifier or modifier.

Preceding an adjective 1. vah maora bahut AcCa daost hO.

vah mera: bahut accha: dost h�.He my very good friend is He is my very good friend.

Preceding a verb2. maora daost raoja, Aata hO.

mera: dost roz a:ta: h�. my friend daily come-ptc is My friend comes daily.

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Preceding another adverb 3. vah kla bahut toja, daOD,a.

vah kal bahut tez d�r�ha:. he yesterday very fast ran He ran very fast yesterday.

3.5.1. Types of Adverbs

Adverbs can be classified by form or function. By function, adverbs can be grouped into the following subclasses.

(a) Adverbs of time/duration: Aaja a:j �today,� kla kal �yesterday,� saubahsubah �morning.�

(b) Adverbs of place or direction: AMdr andar �in/inside,� baahr ba:har�out/outside.�

(c) Adverbs of manner: AasaanaI sao a:sa:ni: se �easily,� QaIro-QaIro dhi:re- dhi:re �slowly.�

(d) Adverbs of reason: garIbaI ko karNa gari:bi: ke ka:ran � �for the reason of poverty,� kmaja,aorI ko karNa kamzori: ke ka:ran� �for the reason ofweakness.�

(e) Adverbs of instrument: klama sao kalam se �with pen,� caakU sao ca:ku: se�with knife.�

(f) Adverbs of purpose: pZ,nao ko ilae par�hne ke liye �for reading,� kama koilae ka:m ke liye �for work.�

(g) Comitative: X -ko saaqa -ke sa:th �with/ in the company of X,� and

(h) Adverbs of degree/intensity: bahut bahut �very,� kafI ka:phi:�enough,� ivarlaa hI kao[- virla: hi: koyi: �hardly any,� lagaBaga lagbhag�approximately.�

By form, adverbs can be classified into the following subgroups: (a) basic or non-derived adverbs, (b) derived adverbs, (c) phrasaladverbs, (d) reduplicated adverbs, and (e) particles.

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(a) The basic or non-derived adverbs may be either pure adverbs likeAaja a:j �today,� sada sada:/ hmaoSaa hame�a: �always,� or may be formed by adding the postposition se to nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

4. vah hmaoSaa AcCI maohnat krta hO.vah hame�a: acchi: mehnat karta: h�. he always good hard work do-ptc isHe always works very hard.

5. ]sanao Apnaa kama KuSaI sao ikyaa.usne apna: ka:m khu�i: se kiya:.she-erg own work happiness with did She did her work very happily.

6. naIcao sao }pr AcCa idKta se u:par accha: dikhta: h�. below from top good appear is It looks better at the top than at the bottom.

7. baahr sao AMdr AiQak zMD,a se andar adhik t �hãd�a: h�.outside from inside more cold isIt is colder inside than outside.

8. ]sanao ekdma sao maora haqa pkD,a.usne ekdam se mera: ha:th pakr�a:he-erg at once my hand caughtHe caught hold of my hand at once.

9. maOMnao JaT sao ]sakI baat maana laI.m��ne jhat� se uski: ba:t ma:n li:. I-erg at once his talk agreed I agreed with what he said immediately.

(b) Derived adverbs are formed by adding adverbial suffixes to the base form of demonstrative, relative, correlative, and interrogative pronouns. Locative adverbs are formed by adding the -[-M -�:/ -AaM pr -ã: par suffixes: yahaÐ yahã:/ yahIM pr yah�:(par) �here,� vahaÐ vah-ã:/ vahIM vah�:/ vahaÐ hI vahã: hi: �there,� khaÐ kahã:/ khIM kah�: �where.�Directional adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -sao -se/-kI -ki: or

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as in yahaÐ sao yahã: se/[Qar sao idhar se �in this direction,� vahaÐ sao vahã: se/vahaÐ kI Aaor vahã: ki: or/ ]Qar sao udhar se �in that direction�, khaÐ sao kahã: se/ khaÐ kI Aaor kahã: ki: or �in which direction.� Manner adverbs are formed by adding the suffixes -trh tarah/p`kar praka:r as in [sa trh is tarah/ [sa p`kar is praka:r �in this manner,� ]sa trh us tarah/ ]sa p`kar us praka:r �in that manner,� iksa trh kis tarah �in which manner.�

(c) Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound postposition to a noun.

10. vah tIna idna ko baad/pScaat Aayaa.vah ti:n din ke ba:d/pa�ca:t a:ya:.he three days post. after came He came after three days.

11. ]sanao pZ,nao sao phlao ApnaI eonak saaf, kI.usne patr par�hne se pahle apnii �nak sa:f ki:. he-erg letter read-inf-obl post before self�s glasses clean did He cleaned his glasses before reading the letter.

12. hmaaro Gar ko pICo ek baD,a pak- hO.hama:re ghar ke pi:che ek bar�a: pa:rk h�. our house post. behind a big park isThere is a big park behind our house.

(d) Adverbs can be reduplicated to show intensity and distribution: QaIro- QaIro dhi:re-dhi:re �slowly,� toja, - toja, tez- tez �fast�, khaÐ- khaÐ kahã: -kahã: �where�, kBaI- kBaI kabhi: - kabhi: �sometimes.�

13. vah QaIro- QaIro/ toja, - toja, calata hO.vah dhi:re- dhi:re/tez- tez calta: h�. he slowly/fast walk-ptc is He walks slowly/quickly.�

14. pta nahIM vah khaÐ- khaÐ gayaa.pata: nah�: vah kahã: - kahã: gaya:.aware neg he where where went One doesn�t know which places did he go to?

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Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle nato express indefiniteness: kBaI na kBaI kabhi: na kabhi: �sometime orother.�

15. kBaI na kBaI vah ApnaI galtI maanaogaI.kabhi: na kabhi: vah apni: galti: ma:nega:. sometime neg sometime he self�s mistake accept-futHe will realize his mistake some day.

3.5.2. Expressions of Time General Time Expressions

General time expressions employ nouns in the direct and obliquecases. The dative sufix kao ko is added to adverbs of time, such as duphr duphar �noon,� Saama �a:m �evening,� rat ra:t �night,� idna din �day,� kla kal �tomorrow/yesterday.�

1. Aap duphr kao Aa[e.a:p duphar ko a:yiye. you noon dat come-pol Please come at noon.

2. rat kao AiQak gamaI- nahIM rhtI.ra:t ko adhik garmi: nah�: rahti:.night dat more hot neg remain-ptc It is not very hot during the night. Time of Day

Time of day is expressed by bajao baje. It is used in reporting time and not in expressions such as ek GaMTo ko baad ek ghant�e ke ba:d �after one hour.� In such cases, GaMTa ghant�a: �hour� is used in the oblique case with a postposition.

3. vah dF,tr sao dsa bajao Aa[-.vah daftar se das baje a:yi:.she office from ten o�clock came-fsShe came from the office at ten o�clock.

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4. vah dao GaMTo ko baad Aa[-.vah do ghant�e ke ba:d a:yi:. she two hour-obl post came-fs She came after two hours.�

The expressions �quarter,� �three-quarters,� and �half an hour� precede the numerals.

5. vah savaa/ paOna/ o saaD,o caar bajao gayaa.vah s�a:/p�ne/sa:r�e ca:r baje: gaya:.he quarter past/quarter to/half past four o�clock wentHe went at quarter past/quarter to/half past four.

Expressons indicating minutes before the hour add the dative suffix to the infinitive of the verb followed by the postposition maoM me� �in�. The expression kma kam �less� also is used.

6. vah Co bajanao maoM dsa imanaT pr Aayaa.vah che bajne me� das minat� par a:ya:.he six o�clock-inf-obl in ten minute at came He came at ten minutes to six.

6a. vah dsa imanaT kma Co bajao Aayaa.vah das minat� kam che baje a:ya:.he ten minutes less six o�clock cameHe came at ten minutes to six.

Two types of expressions are used to ask for the time.

7. sanaya @yaa huAa/ hO? samay k�a: hua:/h�? time what happened/is What time is it?

7a. iktnao baja gae? kitne baj gaye? how much strike went What time is it?

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135 Period of Day

Periods of day are usually expressed by various nouns in the direct or oblique case with or without postpositions: savaoro- savaoro savere(savere) �early in the morning,� rat kao ra:t ko �during the night�, idna maoM din me� �during the day,� dor sao der se �late.� Other frequent expressions are: p`at: kala pra:ta: ka:l �eary in the morning,� saMQyaa sandhya: �dusk/evening,� daophr dophar �noon�, daophr ko baad dophar ke ba:d �afternoon.� Days of the Week

The days of the week are:

saaomavaar somva:r Monday maMgalavaar mangalva:r Tuesday bauQavaar budhva:r WednesdaygauÉvaar guruva:r ThursdaySauk`vaar �ukrva:r Friday Sainavaar �aniva:r/�ani:car va:r Saturday rivavaar/[tvaar raviva:r/itva:r Sunday Months of the Year

Months are expressed in both indigenous and English forms.

1. Hindi months

baOsaaK vai�a:kh April-May jyaoYz jye�t�h May-JuneAYaaZ, a�a:r�h June-July Eaavana �ra:van � July-AugustBaad` bha:dr August-September AaiSvana a:�vin September-October kait-k ka:rtik October-November maaga- ma:rg November-DecemberpaOYa p�� December-January maaGa ma:gh January-February falgauna pha:lgun February-March caOt` caitra March-April

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2. English nativized versions: janavarI janvari:, frvarI pharvari:, maaca- ma:rc, Aip`la april, ma[- mai:, jaUna ju:n, jaula[- julay, Agast agast, isatmbar sitambar, A@taobar akto:bar, navaMbar navambar, idsaMbar disambar. Year

In Hindi, a reference to a year is usually to the year AD called [-svaI i:svi:. Hindus refer to their indigenous calendar as ibak`maI bikrami orSaak �a:k and Muslims as ihjarI hijiri:. The term sana\ san used before the Christian year, is optionally followed by [-svaI i:svi:. Similarly, an indigenous year starts with saMvat\ samvat before the year and ends withibak`maI bikrami.

8. sana\ ]naIsa saaO saaz [-svaI maoMsan uni:s s� sa:t �h i:svi: me�year nineteen hundred sixty Christian era in in the year 1960 AD

9. saMvat\ dao hja,ar saaz ibak`maI maoMsamvat do haza:r sa:t�h bikrami: me�year two thousand sixty Bikrami in in the year 2060 Bikrami

The terms [-saa pUva- i:sa: pu:rv �before Christ� are used to denote BC.

10. [-saa pUva- Co saaO vaYa-Mi:sa: pu:rv che s� var� Christ before six hundred years six hundred years before Christ Seasons

There are five major seasons: vasaMt vasant �spring,� ga`ISma gri:�m�summer,� barsaat barsa:t �rainy season�, Sard sharad �autumn,� and SaItkala �i:tka:l �winter.� These terms can be followed by?tu ritu/ maaOsama m�sim �season� in both the direct and oblique cases with or without apostposition.

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11. vasaMt ³?tu´maoM fUla iKlato hOM.vasant (ritu) me� phu:l khilte h�. �spring (season) in flowers bloom-ptc areFlowers bloom during spring.

3.5.3. Frequentative

Frequentative expressions employ reduplication, an emphatic particle, or p`it prati/ hr har �every� before a time expression.

raoja,, raoja, roz roz every day p`it idna prati din every day hr GaMTo har gant�e every hour rat Bar ra:t bhar whole nightvahr pla har pal every moment

12. vah raoja, raoja, / p`it idna pOsao maaÐgata hO.vah roz roz/ prati din p�se mã:gta: h�.he daily/every day money demand-ptc is He asks for money daily.

3.6. Particles

Particles are generally attached to a particular word in a sentences tomark emphasis, or contrast. The main particles used in Hindi are: BaI bhi:, hI hi:, tao to, tk tak, Bar bhar, and maa~ ma:tra. The use of theseparticles with different word classes covers a wide range of shadesof meaning and semantic interpretations. Here we will illustrate the use of these particles with detailed reference to the prominent particles BaI bhi: and hI hi:.

3.6.1. The Particle Bar bhi: �also�

The particle BaI bhi: is used with different types of nouns in the direct or oblique case. It immediately follows a noun in the direct case and the postposition in the oblique case.

1. Amar BaI gayaa.amar bhi: gaya:. Amar part went Amar also went.

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2. laD,ka BaI Aayaa.lar�ka: bhi: a:ya:.boy part came The boy also came.

3. gamaI- BaI hO.garmi: bhi: h�. hot part isIt is hot, too.

In the oblique case, BaI bhi: is placed immediately after the postposition following the noun.

4. Amar kao BaI jaanaa hO.amar ko bhi: ja:na: h�. Amar-dat part go-inf isAmar, too, will have to go.

5. maaohna nao BaI raoTI Ka[-.mohan ne bhi: rot �i: kha:yi:. Mohan-erg part bread ate-fem Mohan, too, ate his meals.�

6. raQaa saoo BaI galtI hu[-.radha: se bhi: galti: hui:.Radha-abl part mistake happenedRadha, too, committed a mistake.

It is to be noted that BaI bhi: cannot be used between a noun and a postposition.

7. Gar maoM BaI gamaI- hO.ghar m� bhi: garmi: h�.house in part hot isIt is hot in the house as well.

But not7a. *Gar BaI maoM gamaI- hO.

*ghar bhi: m� garmi: h�.

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It is also not used in vocative constructions.

8. *saaohna BaI AaAao!*sohan bhi: ao! Sohan part come-voc

9. *ho laD,ko BaI*he! lar�ke bhi: oh! boy-voc part

The particle BaI bhi: can be used with all types of direct and obliquepersonal, demonstrative, indefinite, relative, and reflexive pronouns.

10. maOM/ tU/ vah BaI Aayaa.m��/tu:/vah bhi: a:ya:.I/you/he part came I/you/he came too.

11. hma/ tuma / vao BaI Aae.ham/tum/ve bhi: a:ye.we/you/they part came We/you/they came too.

12. mauJao / tuJao BaI jaanaa hO.mujhe/tujhe bhi: ja:na: h�.I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux I/you, too, have to go.

13. hmaoM/ Aapkao / ]nhMo BaI jaanaa hO.ham�/a:pko/unh� bhi: ja:na: h�. we/you/they-obl part go-inf aux We/you/they, too, have to go.�

14. mauJakao / tuJakao / ]sakao BaI vaapsa Aanaa hO.mujhko/tujhko/usko bhi: va:pas a:na: h�.I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux I/you/he, too, will have to return.

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15. vah maora /tumhara/ Aapka/ ]saka/ ]naka BaI daost hO.vah mera:/tumha:ra:/a:pka:/uska:/unka: bhi: dost h�. he my/your/his/their friend is part friend is He is my/your/his/their friend, too.

16. vah mauJasao /tumharo sao/ Aapsao/]sasao/ ]nasao BaI baD,a hO.vah mujhse/tuma:hre se/a:pse/usse/unse bhi: bar�a: h�. he me/you/him/they also elder is He is older than me/you/him/her.

17. ]sao/]sakaoo/ ]nhoM/]nakaoo BaI baulaa laa[e.use/usko/unh�/unko bhi: bula: la:yie.he/they part call bring.Please call him/her/them also.

18. Aap [sako baaro maoM BaI kuC kIijae.a:p iske ba:re m� bhi: kuch this-gen about part something do-pl Please do something for it.

19. Aap iktnaI BaI kaoiSaSa kIijae safla nahIM haoMgao.a:p kitni: bhi: ko�i� ki:jiye, saphal nah�: hõ how much part try do success neg be No matter how much you try, you won�t succeed.

20. Aap mauJao kao[- BaI iktaba do dIijae.a:p mujhe koyi: bhi: kita:b de me-dat any part book give-plPlease give me any book.

In the oblique form of the indefinite pronouns, the particle BaI bhi: is placed after the postpositions.

21. Aap iksaI kao BaI baulaa[e.a:p kisi: ko bhi: any-dat part call-pl Please call anyone.

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Not 21a. *Aap iksaI BaI kao baulaa[e.

*a:p kisi: bhi: ko bula:yie.

The use of the particle BaI bhi: with the indefinite pronouns kao[- koyi:and kuC kuch, represent different meanings: kao[- BaI koyi: bhi: �anyone,�kuC BaI kuch bhi: �anything.�

22. Aap jaao BaI kama krnaa caahto hOM¸ kr laIijae.a:p jo bhi: ka:m karna: cahte h��, kar li:jiye. you any part work want is do takeWhatever work you want to do, go ahead.

23. jaba BaI Aap Aato hOM¸ iktaba saaqa lao Aato hOM.jab bhi: a:p a:te h��, kita:b sa:th le a:te h��. when part you come are book with bring past auxWhenever you come, bring your book with you.

24. vah Aaap jaOsaa BaI nahIM hO.vah a:p j�sa: bhi: nah�: h��. he you like part neg is �He is not even like you.�

25. Aap ijatnaa BaI pOsaa do sakto hOM¸ do dIijae.a:p jitna: bhi: p�sa: de sakte h��, de as much part money give can give-pl Whatever money you can give, please give it.

In the oblique case, the particle BaI bhi: is placed after thepostpositions.

26. ijasakao/ijanakao BaI jaanaa h¸O jaaAao/ calao jaaeÐ.jisko/jinko bhi: ja:na h�, ja:o/cale ja:y�. who-dat part go-inf. is go go-subjWhosoever has to go may leave.

The use of the particle BaI bhi: with relative pronouns representsdifferent meanings: jaao BaI jo bhi: �whosoever� or �whatsoever,� jaba BaIjab bhi: �whenever,� ijatnaa BaI jitna: bhi: �whatever.�

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27. vah Aap BaI maohnat krta hO¸ dUsaraoM kao BaI krvaata hO.vah a:p bhi: mehnat karta: h�, du:srõko bhi: karva:ta: h�.he self part hard work do is others-obl dat part do-caus is He works hard himself and makes others work hard too.

28. Aap Apnao Aap/ svayaM / svat: BaI yah kama kr sakto hOM.a:p apne a:p/svayam/ svatah bhi: yah ka:m kar sakte h��. you self part this work do-abl are You can do this work yourself.

In the case of oblique forms, the particle BaI bhi: is placed after thepostposition, not between the pronoun and the postposition.

The particle BaI bhi: is used with different types of adjectives. Italways follows the adjectives.

29. vah laD,kI sauMdr BaI hO AaOr bauiwmaana BaI.vah lar�ki: sundar bhi: h� �r buddhima:n bhi:.that girl beautiful part is and intelligent part That girl is beautiful as well as intelligent.

30. iktnao BaI maja,dUr @yaaoM na Aaeи yah kama Aaja nahIM hao sakta.kitne bhi: mazdu:r kyõ na a:y�, yah ka:m a:j nah�: ho sakta:. how much part laborers neg come-subj this work today negpossible No matter how many laborers come, this work cannot befinished today.

31. [sa dukana pr iklaao Bar BaI caInaI nahIM duka:n par kilo bhar bhi: ci:ni: nah�: h�. this shop at kilogram about part sugar neg is There is not even a kilogram of sugar in this shop.

32. kOsaa BaI kama hao¸ vah kr laogaa.k�sa: bhi: ka:m ho, vah kar lega:.what type part work be he do explicator-fut No matter what type of work it is, he would be able to do it.

In (29), (30), and (31), the particle BaI bhi: is merely an emphatic marker. In (32), however, the expression kOsaa BaI k�sa: bhi: is a combined phrase meaning �any type of.� If BaI bhi: is deleted, the

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sentence will be ungrammatical.

The particle BaI bhi: is used with different forms of the verb hao ho �be�and the auxiliary verb.

33. maaohna hO (BaI) ik nahIM? mohan h� (bhi:) ki nah�:? Mohan be (part) or negIs Mohan there or not?

34. vah haogaa BaI ik nahIM? vah hoga: bhi: ki nah�:? he be-fut part or negWill he be there or not?

35. Aap AaeÐgao BaI ik nahIM? a:p a:y�ge bhi: ki nah�:? you come-fut part or negWill you come or not?

In the above examples, the particle BaI bhi: is used for emphasis only.Barring the progressive forms, the particle BaI bhi: is used withdifferent types of verbs.

36. ]saka Gar jaanaa BaI zIk nahI,M qaa.uska: ghar ja:na: bhi: t�hi:k nah�: tha:. his home go-ing part right neg was His going home was not good.

37. vah krnao vaalaa BaI hO AaOr krvaanao vaalaa BaI.vah karne va:la: bhi: h� �r karva:ne va:la: bhi:. he do-ing-obl part is and do-caus part He can do it himself and get it done, too.

38. vah dukana pr jaata BaI hO ik nahIM.vah duka:n par ja:ta: bhi: h� ki nah�:. he shop at go part is or negDoes he go to the shop or not?

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39. Aap Aae BaI AaOr calao BaI gae.a:p a:ye bhi: �r cale bhi: gaye. you came part and go-obl part went You came and have left, too.

40. Aapkao vahaÐ gae BaI bahut idna hao gae.a:p ko vahã: gaye bhi: bahut din ho there went-obl part many days passedIt is a long time since you have gone over there.

41. vah Ka BaI rha hO AaOr baatoM BaI kr rha hO.vah kha: bhi: raha: h� �r ba:t� bhi: kar raha: h�. he eat part prog is and talk part do-prog is He is eating as well as talking.

It is to be noted that the particle BaI bhi: cannot follow the progressive aspect marker rha raha:.

42. vah Ka BaI rha hO.vah kha: bhi: raha: h�. he eat part prog isHe has been eating.

Not 42a. *vah Ka rha BaI hO.

*vah kha: raha: bhi: h�.

The particle BaI bhi: can be used with conjunct verbs. It is used either between the main verb and the operator (auxiliary verb) or following the main verb and the operator as follows.

43. ]sanao doKa BaI qaa.usne dekha: bhi: tha:.he-erg saw part was He had seen it.

44. ]sao laanao BaI dao.use la:ne bhi: do.he-abl being-inf-obl part letLet him bring (it).

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45. Aba jaanao BaI dao.ab ja:ne bhi: go-inf-obl part let Now let it go.

46. maOMnao icaT\zI ilaK BaI dI hO.m��ne cit�t�hi: likh bhi: di: h�.I-erg letter write part gave (explicator) is I have written a letter, too.

The particle BaI bhi: is also used between the main verb and thenegative marker.

47. vah Aayaa BaI nahIM.vah a:ya: bhi: nah�:.he came part neg He did not even come.

48. rmaoSa BaI Aayaa nahIM.rame� bhi: a:ya: nah�:. Ramesh part came neg Even Ramesh did not come.

Notice the change of meaning in the use of the particle BaI bhi:different from the lexical meaning �also� in the following examples.

49. vah ]sako Gar gayaa BaI magar ]sao imala BaI na saka.vah uske ghar gaya: bhi:, magar use mil bhi: na saka:. he his home went part but he-dat met part neg able He did go to his house, but could not meet him.

50. vah jaaegaa BaI yaa baOza hI rhogaa.vah ja:yega: bhi: ya: b�t�ha: hi: rahega:. he go-fut part or sit part remain-fut Will he go or keep on sitting?

51. vah vahaÐ gayaa BaI nahIM.vah vahã: gaya: bhi: nah�:.he came part neg He did not even go there.

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52. jaanao BaI dao.ja:ne bhi: do.go-inf-obl part let-imp Let it go.

53. rhnao BaI dao.rahne bhi: do. remain-inf-obl part let-impLet it be.

The particle BaI bhi: can be used with different types of adverbs.

54. yahaÐ BaI zMD, hO.yahã: bhi: t�hãd� h�. here part cold is It is cold over here, too.

55. vahaÐ BaI doKao.vahã: bhi: dekho.there part See-imp Please look over there, too.

56. idna Bar BaI yahaÐ kama na huAa.din bhar bhi: yahã: ka:m na part here work neg be-part The work could not be done for the whole day over here.

57. paÐca BaI baja gae¸ vah Aayaa nahIM.pã:c bhi: baj gaye, vah a:ya: nah�:. five part struck went he came neg It is now five o�clock and he has not come.

58. baar baar BaI jaanaa zIk nahIM ba:r bhi: ja:na t�hi:k nah�: h�. again part go-inf right neg isIt is not good to go time and again.

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59. jaOsao BaI hao vah Aa jaaegaa.j�se bhi: ho vah a: ja:yega:. somehow part be he com-fut He will come somehow.

60. vah [sailae gayaa Saayad pOsao imalao.vah isliye bhi: gaya: �a:yad p�se mil�. he for this part went perhaps money get-subjHe went in the hope of getting money.

61. maOM na BaI jaa}Рtuma ja,$r jaanaa.m�� na bhi: ja:�: tum zaru:r ja:na:.I neg part go-subj you definitely go-inf-impYou should go, even if I don�t.

62. kBaI haÐ BaI kraogao? kabhi: hã: bhi: karoge? sometime yes part do-fut Will you ever say yes?

63. yah BaI nahIM kraogao tao @yaa kraogaoo? yeh bhi: nah�: karoge to kya: karoge? this part neg do-fut part what do-futIf you are not able to do this much, what else will you do?

The use of the particle BaI bhi: with different adverbs representsdifferent meanings: Aba BaI ab bhi: �even now� tba BaI tab bhi: �even then,� �even so,� jaba BaI jab bhi: �whenever,� jahaÐ BaI jahã: bhi: �whereever� khIM BaI kah�: bhi: �anywhere,� jahaÐ khIM BaI jahã: kah�: bhi: �in any place whatsoever,� ifr BaI phir bhi: �yet� �even so.�

The particle BaI bhi: is used after certain case markers and /or postpositions as well.

64. ]sako pasa BaI kama nahIM hO.uske pa:s bhi: ka:m nah�: h�. he-gen-abl near part work neg is He, too, doesn�t have work.

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65. [sako ibanaa BaI kama haogaa.iske bina: bhi: ka:m hoga:. this-gen-obl without part work be-futThe work can be done even without it.

66. ]sako badlao BaI kao[- nahIM Aayaa.uske badle bhi: koyi: nah�: a:ya:. he-gen-obl place part someone neg cameNo one came in his place.

The particle BaI bhi: used with AaOr �r �and� indicates the meaning of �more.�

67. naIlaI saaD,I maoM vah AaOr BaI sauMdr lagatI sa:r�i: m� vah �r bhi: sundar lagti: h�. blue saree in she more beautiful appear-ptc-is She appears more beautiful in a blue sari.

68. AaOr BaI AcCa huAa.�r bhi: accha: hua:.more good happenedIt is better still.

From the semantic point of view, BaI bhi: represents different meanings depending on its use in different contexts. The meanings are represented in the following examples.

69. kama Aasaana BaI hO AaOr idlacasp BaI.ka:m a:sa:n bhi: h� �r dilcasp easy part is and interesting part The work is easy and interesting, too.

70. vah maoro saaqa baaolata BaI nahIM. vah mere sa:th bolta: bhi: nah�:. he I-poss-obl with speak-ptc part neg He doesn�t even talk with me.

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71. jaanao BaI dao.ja:ne bhi: do.go-inf-obl part let-imp Let it go.

72. saoba CaoTa hO ifr BaI maIza hO.seb chot�a: h� phir bhi: mi:t�ha: h�. apple small is even then part sweet isDespite of being small, the apple is sweet.

73. maaÐ kao doKkr baccaa AaOr BaI ja,aor sao raoyaa.mã: ko dekh kar bacca: �r bhi: zor se cila:ya:. mother-dat see-cp child more part loudly cried On seeing the mother, the child cried more loudly.

74. ]sao kuC BaI samaJa maoM nahIM Aayaa.use kuch bhi: samajh m� nah�: a:ya:.he-dat anything understand in neg cameHe was not able to understand anything.

In the above sentences, BaI bhi: represents the general meaning of �too,� �even� and �let� in the sentences (69), (70), and (71) respectively. In (72), ifr BaI phir bhi: represents the meaning of �eventhen.� In (73), AaOr BaI �r bhi: represents the meaning of �more,� and in (74), kuC BaI kuch bhi: represents the meaning of �anything.�

The particle BaI bhi: can be used interchangeably with hI hi: in certain examples with no change in the meaning.

75. ]sao maora sauJaava ibalkula BaI / hI psaMd na Aayaa.use mera: sujha:v bilkul bhi:/hi: pasand na a:ya:.he-dat my suggestion exact part like neg cameHe did not like my suggestion at all.

In such cases, the use of the particle BaI bhi: or hI hi: is meant to emphasize only. Wherever BaI bhi: adds meaning to the sentence, it cannot be interchanged with hI hi:.

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76. naIlaI saaD,I maoM vah AaOr BaI sauMdr lagatI sa:r�i: m� vah �r bhi: sundar lagti: h�. blue sari in she more part beautiful appear isShe looks more beautiful in the blue sari.

76a. *naIlaI saaD,I maoM vah AaOr hI sauMdr lagatI hO.*ni:li: sa:r�i: m� vah �r hi: sundar lagti: h�.

3.6.2. The particle hI hi:

The particle hI hi: is generally used for emphasis and also in thesense of �exclusiveness� or �alone.� As indicated above, the particlehI hi: can be used as an emphatic marker with nouns. It can also be used with different types of pronouns in both the direct and the oblique cases: maOM hI m�� hi: �I myself,� tU hI tu: hi: �thou thyself,� Aap hIa:p hi: �you yourself,� kao[- hI koi: hi: �hardly anyone,� kuC hI kuch hi:�hardly anything,� �hardly a few.�

1. maOM hI Aa}Ðgaa.m�� hi: a:�:ga:. I past come-fut I will come myself.

2. Aap hI bata[e.a:p hi: bata:yiye. you part say You say (it) yourself.

3. kao[- hI yah kama kr sakta hO.koyi: hi: yah ka:m kar sakta: h�. any part this work do able-ptc aux Hardly anyone can do this work.

4. kuC hI laaoga Aae qao.kuch hi: log a:ye the. some part people came aux Hardly a few people had come.

Adding the emphatic particle hI hi: to certain words results in certain phonological changes.

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(a) Aba ab + hI hi: = ABaI abhi: just nowtba tab + hI hi: = tBaI tabhi: just then saba sab + hI hi: = saBaI sabhi: all, everybody

When hI hi: is preceded by pronouns in the oblique case, such as [sais, ]sa us, iksa kis, and ijasa jis, the h h is elided.

(b) [sa is + hI hi: = [saI isi: this very]sa us + hI hi: = ]saI usi: that sameiksa kis + hI hi: = iksaI kisi: someone hI jis + hI hi: = ijasaI jisi: the very one which

The h h is dropped when preceded by mauJa mujh, tuJa tujh, yah yah, vahvah, or hma ham.

(c) mauJa mujh + hI hi: = mauJaI mujhi: me myselftuJa tujh + hI hi: = tuJaI tujhi: you yourself

yah yah + hI hi: = yahI yahi: this itself vah vah + hI hi: = vahI vahi: he himself hma ham + hI hi: = hmaIM ham�: we ourselves

In certain cases, exclusiveness is dropped in the preceding word and the final vowel is nasalized.

yahaÐ yahã: + hI hi: = yahIM yah�: at this very placejahaÐ jahã: + hI hi: = hI jahIM jah�: wherevervahaÐ vahã: + hI hi: = vahIM vah�: at that very placekhaÐ kahã: + hI hi: = khIM kah�: somewhere

The emphatic particle hI hi: is frequently used with different types of pronouns. Its use with reflexive pronouns is quite interesting. Hindi has only four reflexive pronouns: Aap a:p, its oblique forms Apnaaapna: and Apnao apne, and a compound of these two Apnao Aap apne-a:p�by oneself�; Aapsa a:pas meaning �each other,� or �one another.� When Aap a:p is followed by hI hi:, it has an adjectival intensifying force and qualifies a noun or a pronoun which, as a rule, is thelogical subject of the sentences.

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5. maaohna Aap hI vahaÐ gayaa.mohan a:p hi: vahã: gaya:.Mohan self part there wentMohan went there on his own.

6. mauJao Aap hI jaanaa pD,ogaa.mujhe a:p hi: ja:na: par� self part go-inf fall-fut I shall have to go myself.

7. vao Aap hI AaeÐ a:p hi: a:y�ge. they self part come-futThey themselves will come.

8. Syaama nao Aap hI yah icaT\zI ilaKI hO.�ya:m ne a:p hi: yah cit�t�hi: likhi: h�. Shyam-erg self part this letter wrote is Shyam has himself written this letter.

Aap hI a:p hi: sometimes qualifies nouns or pronouns which are notthe logical subjects of the sentences.

9. ]samaoM Aap hI saahsa nahIM hO.usm� a:p hi: sa:has nah�: h�. he in self part courage neg is He himself has no courage.

10. ]saka Aap hI idvaalaa inakla jaaegaa.uska: a:p hi: diva:la: nikal ja:yega: he -gen self part bankrupt come go-futHe will himself become bankrupt.

Aap hI a:p hi: can be used as an adverb to mean �of one�s own accord.�

11. vah Aap hI Asptala gayaa.vah a:p hi: aspata:l gaya:.he self part hospital went He went to the hospital on his own.

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It is interesting to note the different shades of the meanings of the particle hI hi: in the following sentences.

12. Amar ko Aato hI maaohna calaa gayaa.amar ke a:te hi: mohan cala: gaya:.Amar-gen-come-ptc part mohan went As soon as Amar came, Mohan left.

13a. raQaa Aa rhI qaI.ra:dha: a: rahi: thi:.Radha come-prog was-f Radha was coming.

13b. raQaa Aa hI rhI qaI.ra:dha: a: hi: rahi: thi:.Radha was come-part-prog was-fRadha was just coming.

14a. maaohna jaaegaa.mohan ja:yega:.Mohan go-futMohan will go.

14b. maaohna jaaegaa hI.mohan ja:yega: hi:.Mohan go-fut part Mohan will certainly go.

15a. maOM gayaa nahIM.m�� gaya: nah�:. I went part neg I did not go.

15b. maOM gayaa hI nahIM.m�� gaya: hi: nah�:. I went part neg I did not go at all.

16a. vah Aaja gayaa haogaa.vah a:j gaya: hoga:.he today went be-presumptive He might have gone today.

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16b. vah Aaja hI gayaa haogaa.vah a:j hi: gaya: hoga:.he today part went be-presumptive He might have gone just today.

17a. yah AcCa huAa.yeh accha: hua:.this good happened It is good.

17b. yah AcCa hI huAa.yeh accha: hi: hua:.this good part happenedIt is good (emphatic).

18a. AcCa hUÐ.accha: h�: good am I am fine.

18b. AcCa hI hUÐ.accha: hi: h�:. good part am I am fine (emphatic).

19a. kuC AaOr maja,a Aayaa.kuch �r maza: a:ya:. some more enjoyment cameIt was an extra enjoyment.

19b. kuC AaOr hI maja,a Aayaa.kuch �r hi: maza: a:ya:some more part enjoyment cameIt was quite a different kind of enjoyment.

20. baccao nao tsvaIr @yaa doKI¸ tsvaIr hI faD, DalaI.bacce ne tasvi:r kya: dekhi:, tasvi:r (hi:) pha:r� d �a:li:child-erg picture what saw picture (emp) tear explicator-past Instead of seeing it, the child has torn off the picture.

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In sentence (12), the particle hI hi: becomes part of the verb addingthe meaning �as soon as.� In (13b), the particle hI hi: adds the meaning of �just.� In (14b), the particle hI hi: adds the meaning �certainly.� In (15b), it adds the meaning �at all.� In (16b) and (17b), it makes the adjectives emphatic. By adding the particle hI hi: to kuC AaOr kuch �r in sentence (19b), it gives the meaning �different kindof.� Thus, besides its use for emphasis, the particle hI hi: adds different shades of meaning depending on its use.

3.6.3. The Particle tao to

The particle tao to is mostly used as an emphatic marker and also denotes contrast.

1. vah Aayaa tao hO.vah a:ya: to h�. he came part is He has come indeed.

2. ]sao AMdr Aanao tao dao.use andar a:ne to do.he-dat inside come-inf+obl part let Let him come inside.

3. maaomabatI tao imalaI¸ idyaasalaa[- nahIM.mombati: to mili:, diya:sala:yi: nah�:.candle part found match-box negThe candle was found, (but) not the matchbox.

4. vah ]sako pasa tao gayaa¸ pr baaolaa nahIM.vah uske pa:s to gaya:, par bola: nah�:. he he-gen+obl near part went but said neg He did go near him, but did not speak.

The particle to is also added to the negative marker nahIM nah�:. The phrase nahIM tao nah�: to has several uses including as an emphaticnegative reply denoting �surprise� or �disapproval.�

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5. Aap Aagara gae qao? a:p a:gra: gaye the?you Agra went were Did you go to Agra?

5a. nahIM tao.nah�: to. neg part Not really/Not at all.

As a coordinate conjunction, nahIM tao nah�: to means �otherwise.�

6. toja, calaao¸ nahIM tao gaaD,I CUT jaaegaI. tez calo, nah�: to ga:r�i: chu:t � ja:yegi:. Fast walk neg part train miss-fut Walk fast, otherwise you will miss the train.

Another use in combination with the particle BaI bhi: indicates �yet, even so.�

7. Agar vah khogaa BaI¸ tao BaI maOM ]sako saaqa nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.agar vah kahega: bhi:, to bhi: m�� uske sa:th nah�: ja:�:ga:.If he say-fut part part � he-gen-obl with neg go-futEven if he says so, I will not go with him.

In sentence (7), tao BaI to bhi: can be replaced by ifr BaI phir bhi: �even so, yet.� In its adverbial use, tao to is a correlative of jaba jab �when� or of yaid yadi �if� and it signifies �then.�

8. jaba ]sao maalaUma huAa¸ tao vah raonao lagaa.jab use ma:lu:m hua, to vah rone laga:.when he-dat know be-past part he cry-inf-obl starts When he came to know, (then) he began to cry.

8a. yaid tuma Gar gae tao pCtaAaogao.yadi tum ghar gaye to pachta:oge.if you home went part repent-fut If you go to your home, (then) you will repent.

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3.6.4. The Particle tk tak �up to�

The particle tk tak has two primary meanings: as the limited particle �even� and as the postposition �up to.�

1. ]sanao tar tk nahIM Baojaa.usne ta:r tak nah�: bheja:. he-erg wire part neg sent He did not even send a telegram.

2. ]sanao maorI baat tk nahIM saunaI.usne meri: ba:t tak nah�: suni:.he-erg my talk part neg listened He did not even listen to what I said.

As a postposition, tk tak is used in the sense of �up to� or �until.�

3. vah kla tk ja,$r Aaegaa.vah kal tak zaru:r a:yega:. he tomorrow part definitely come-fut He will come by tomorrow definitely.

4. vah kla tk pOsaa laaOTaegaa.vah kal tak p�sa: l�t �a:yega:.he tomorrow part money return-fut He will return the money by tomorrow.

5. vahaÐ phuÐcanao tk dao idna lagaoMgao.vahã: pah�cne tak do din lag�ge. there reach-inf-obl part two days take-fut It will take two days to reach there.

6. jaba tk Aap Aa&a nahIM doMgao, maOM nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.jab tak a:p a:gya: nah�: d�ge, m�� nah�: ja:�:ga:.when part you permission neg give-fut I neg go-futUntil you permit me, I will not go.

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3.6.5. The Particle Bar bhar

The particle Bar bhar denotes the meaning of �measuring a �,� �weighing a�,� �a�ful,� etc. In this meaning, it acts like a suffix, forming the adjectives from nouns. Unlike the English suffix -full, it is a separate word which can be attached to nouns, adjectives, verbs, and other parts of speech.

1. maITr Bar kpD,a do dIoijae.mi:t�ar bhar kapr�a: de di:jiye. meter part cloth give-futPlease give (a piece of ) cloth measuring a meter.

2. vah iklaao Bar dUQa ek baar pI sakta hO.vah kilo bhar du:dh ek ba:r pi: sakta: h�. he kilogram part milk one time drink able-ptc aux He can drink a kilogram of milk at a time.

3. Gar maoM mauT\zI Bar caavala nahIM hO.ghar m� mut�t �hi: bhar ca:val nah�: h�. home in handful part rice neg is There is not even a handful of rice in the house.

As a particle, Bar bhar denotes the meanings �the entire�,� �the whole�, �only,� and �just.�

4. doSa Bar maoM caunaava hao rho hom*� bhar m� cuna:v ho rahe h��.country part in election be prog are The elections are being held throughout the entire country.

5. vah idna Bar saaoyaa rha.vah din bhar soya: raha:.he day part slept remainedHe slept for the whole day.

6. ]sanao pla Bar BaI Aarama nahIM ikyaa.usne pal bhar bhi: a:ra:m nah�� kiya:. he-erg moment part rest neg didHe did not rest even for a moment.

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7. Gar Bar maoM baccao Saaor krto rho.ghar bhar m� bacce �or karte rahe.home part in children noise do-pr remained The children made noise throughout the entire house.�

8. Aap doKto Bar hao KrIdto nahIM. a:p dekhte bhar ho, khari:dte nah�:. you see-pr part be purchase-pr neg You only look but do not purchase.

Notice that in sentence (8), Bar bhar can be replaced by the particle hI hi:.

3.6.6. The Particle maa~ ma:tr

The particle maa~ ma:tr is borrowed from Sanskrit and means �only� or�whole.� In Sanskrit, it is used as a suffix and is attached to nouns.

ivaQyaa vidhya: + maa~ ma:tr = ivaQyaamaa~ vidhya:ma:tr only learningpla pal + maa~ ma:tr = plamaa~ palma:tr only a moment maanava ma:nav + maa~ ma:tr = maanavamaa~ ma:navma:tr all of humanity

In Hindi, the particle maa~ ma:tr is an equivalent of kovala keval or hI hi:�only,� �alone.� It is also used as a separate word.

1. Aap iktaba maa~ dIijae.a:p kita:b ma:tr di:jiye. You book part give-futPlease give only the book.

1a. Aap kovala iktaba dIijae.a:p keval kita:b di:jiye. Please give only the book.

1b. Aap iktaba hI dIijae.a:p kita:b hi: di:jiye. Please give just the book.

2. mauJao saaO Épe maa~ dIijae.mujhe s� rupaye ma:tr hundred rupees part give-fut Please give me a hundred rupees only.

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2a. mauJao maa~ saaO Épe dIijae.mujhe ma:tr s� rupaye di:jiye.

2b. mauJao kovala saaO Épe dIijae.mujhe keval s� rupaye di:jiye.

The particle Bar ma:tr can also be used in the initial position insentences. It can be replaced by Bar keval as in (3a).

3. maa~ ]sanao yah kama nahIM usne yah ka:m nah�: kiya:. part he-erg this work neg did He was the only one not to do this work.

3a. kovala ]sanao yah kama nahIM ikyaa.keval usne yah ka:m nah�: kiya:.

To sum up, the use of various particles in Hindi is important from a semantic point of view. Besides their use as emphatic markers, they cover a wide range of meanings and further shades of meanings when used in combination with various word classes. They arefrequently used in different dialects and styles of speech in Hindi.

3.7. Connectives

Connectives are words that join two elements.

AaOr �r and yaa ya: or

laoikna lekin but ik ki that magar magar but bailk balki rather vanaa- varna: otherwise [sa ilae isi: liye that is why, therefore @yaaoMik kyõki because taik ta:ki so that Agar agar �if� halaaMik ha:lã:ki �though�

Structurally, connectives are divided into three classes: (i) mono-morphemic, (ii) poly-morphemic, and (iii) phrasal.

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3.7.1. Mono-morphemic

Mono-morphemic is composed of only one morpheme.

1. maOM Gar gayaa AaOr Amar baaj,aar gayaa.m�� ghar gaya: �r amar ba:za:r gaya:.I house went and Amar market went I went home and Amar went to the market.

2. tuma [Qar AaAaogao yaa maOM ]Qar Aa}Ðgaa.tum idhar a:oge ya: m�� udhar a:�:ga:. you here come-fut or I there come-fut You will come here or I will come there.

3.7.2. Poly-morphemic

Poly-morphemics are composed of two or more morphemes.

3. maOM Aaja kalaoja nahIM gayaa¸ @yaaoMik maorI tbaIyat zIk nahIM hO. m�� a:j ka:lej nah�: gaya: ky�ki meri: tabiyat t�hi:k nah�:h�.

I today college neg went because my health right neg be Today I didn�t go to college because I am not well.

4. ]sanao Kanaa nahIM Kayaa¸ [sailae maOMnao BaI nahIM Kayaa.usne kha:na: nah�: kha:ya:, is liye m��ne bhi: nah�: kha:ya:. He food neg ate for that I part neg eat He did�t eat the food, therefore I also didn�t eat.

3.7.3. Phrasal

Phrasals consist of two elements interrupted by intervening words, such as Agar agar � tao to �if � then.�

5. Agar tuma khao tao maOM Aa}Ðgaa.agar tum kaho to m�� a:�ga:. If you say-fut then I come-fut If you say so then I will come.

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3.8. Interjections

Interjections express some emotions such as pain, pleasure, anger, surprise, and disgust. An interjection is in the vocative case and has no grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence. In Hindi, interjections are used as independent words or they can beprefixed to nouns.

ho Bagavaana! he bhagva:n! O God!Aao laD,ko! o lar�ke! O boy!

Surprise is expressed by: Aaoh oh! Aroo are! Aaohao oho! @yaa kya:!

1. Aaoh / Aroo / Aaohao / @yaa tuma Aa gae!oh/are/oho/kya: tum a: gaye! o/what you cameO you came!

Applause is expressed by: vaah va:h! KUba khu:b! SaabaaSa �a:ba:�!

2. vaah / KUba / SaabaaSa baoTo tumanao AcCa kama ikyaa!va:h/khu:b/�a:ba:� bet �e tumne accha: ka:m kiya:! oh son-voc you-erg good work didOh (my) son, you have done good work!

Sorrow or grief is expressed by: haya ha:y! ha ha:! Aha a:h! ]f uph! Afsaaosa afsos!

3. haya / ha / Aah /]f /Afsaaosa yah @yaa huAa! ha:y/ha:/a:h/uph/afsos yah kya: hua:!alas this what happened Alas what happened!

Joy is expressed by: Aaha a:ha:! Aha aha:! vaah vaah va:h - va:h!

4. Aaha / Aha / vaah - vaah @yaa sauMdr jagah hO! a:ha:/aha:/va:h-va:h kya: sundar jaga:h h�! oh what beautiful place is Oh what a beautiful place!

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Disgust or disapproval is expressed by: CI chi: (CI chi:)! qaU thu:! iQa@kar dhikka:r!

5. CI ( CI )/ qaU / iQa@kar iktnaa gaMda hO! chi: (chi:)/thu:/dikka:r kitna: ganda: h�! shame, how dirty is Shame, how dirty it is!

Distress is expressed by: haya ro ha:y re!

6. haya ro maOM lauT gayaa! ha:y re m�� lut � gaya:oh I rob went(explicator) Oh I am robbed (of everything)!

Certain nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs are used as interjections.

7. rama rama ra:m ra:m! (expresses sympathy or disapproval)8. baap ro baap ba:p re ba:p! (expresses surprise or distress)9. AcCa accha:! (expresses surprise) 10. @yaa kya:! (expresses surprise) 11. jaa mar ja: mar! (expresses rebuke)

Some interjections can be used as nouns.

12. @yaaoM haya haya kr rho hao? kyõ ha:y ha:y kar rahe ho? why expression of ditress do-prp be Why are you raising the hue and cry?

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4. Syntax

4.1. Structure of Phrases

4.1.1. Noun Phrase

A noun phrase is defined as a nominal head preceded by one ormore modifiers. It also serves as a nucleus of a postpositional phrase. It may function as a subject or object (indirect or direct)predicative complement or as a direct object of a postposition. A noun or a pronoun can be the minimum constituent of a noun phrase. A nominal may be modified by a variety of modifiers such asadjectives, quantifiers, numerals, emphatic markers, limiters and comparative, equative, and superlative markers.

Attributive adjectives immediately precede a nominal head as amodifier, e.g., nayaa kaoT naya: kot� �new coat� and sauMdr laD,kI sundar lar�ki:�beautiful girl.� Possessive adjectives precede the head noun asmodifiers in noun phrases. They may or may not also be preceded by an appropriate form of the genitive postposition ka ka:/ ko ke/ kIki: agreeing in gender and number with the object noun.

1. AjaIt ka baD,a baoTa Aayaa. aji:t ka: bar�a: bet�a: a:ya:.Ajit-gen-ms elder son cameAjit�s elder son came.

2. AjaIt ko dao ima~ Aae. aji:t ke do mitr a:ye Ajit-gen-mpl two friends cameAjit�s two friends came.

3. maaohna kI CaoTI baoTI sauMdr hO. mohan ki: chot �i: bet�i: sundar h�..Mohan-gen-f younger daughter beautiful is Mohan�s younger daughter is beautiful.

4. maaohna kI CaoTI baoiTyaaÐ jaa rhI hOM. mohan ki: chot �i: bet�iyã: ja rahi: h��. Mohan-gen-fpl small daughters go-prog are Mohan�s younger daughters are going.

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There is no distinct category of articles used in Hindi. The conceptof definiteness and indefiniteness is expressed indirectly by means of pronouns, and the numeral ek ek �one.�

5. kao[- ek laD,kakoi:/ek lar�ka:some /a/one boy

6. yah/vah baccaa yah/vah bacca:

this/that child

The numeral ek ek and the indefinite pronoun kao[- koi: �some(one)�are used in place of an indefinite article. A definite determiner involves either a demonstrative/personal pronoun or a zero markingas given in (6). It is only the context which disambiguates the potential ambiguity present in the above two sentences.

Besides determiners, a noun may be preceded by quantifiers and numerals in the form of (i) approximate/ordinal (e.g., lagaBaga lagbhag�about,� krIba kari:b �almost,� kovala keval �only,� phlaa pahla: �first�, dUsara du:sra: �second�, tIsara ti:sra: �third�, caaOqaa cautha: �fourth�), (ii) cardinal/ multiplicative/fraction (e.g., ek ek �one,� dao do �two,� duganaa dugna: �twice,� itganaa tigna: �three-fold,� AaQaa a:dha: �half�, tIsara Baaga ti:sra: bha:g/ ihsaa hisa: �one-third�, caaOqaa Baaga c�tha: bha:g/ihsaa hisa:�one-fourth,�), and (iii) collective/measure (e.g., jaaoD,I jor�i: �pair�, dja-na darjan �dozen,� iklaao kilo �kilogram,� AaQaa iklaao a:dha: kilo �half a kilogram�).

Definite + Cardinal + Noun

7. yao caar kmaIja,oM AcCI ca:r kami:z� acchi: h��these four shirts good areThese four shirts are good.

Definite + Ordinal + Noun

8. phlaa baccaa hmaoSaa lajaIlaa haota hO. pahla: bacca: hame�a: lajji:la: hota: h�.

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first child always shy be-ptc The first child is always shy.

Definite + Ordinal + Cardinal + Noun

9. yao phlao dao laoK Cpnao yaaogya pahle do lekh chapne yogya h�.�these first two essays print-inf-obl suitable areThese first two essays are worth publishing.

Definite + Cardinal + Collective

10. yao tIna dja-na AMD,o taja,o hOM. ye ti:n darjan ãd�e ta:ze h�. �these three dozen eggs fresh are These three dozen eggs are fresh.

Definite + Cardinal + Measure

11. vao paÐca baaoiryaaÐ caavala ipClao saala kI hOM. ve pã:c boriyã: ca:val pichle sa:l ki: h��. those five sacks rice last year gen-fp are Those five sacks of rice are last year�s.

Definite + Ordinal + Fractional + Measure

12. yah dUsara vaalaa AaQaa iklaao caavala zIk nahIM hO.yah du:sra:(va:la:) a:dha: kilo ca:val t �hi:k nah�: h�. this second half kilogram rice good not isThis second half kilogram of rice is not good.

Notice that quantifiers such as saaro sa:re/ tmaama tama:m �all� follow a head noun when the head noun is a pronoun.

13. yao saBaI iktabaoM maOMnao pZ,I hOM. ye sabhi: kita:b� m��ne par�hi: h��.these all books I-erg read-past-fp are I have read all these books.

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14. hma saaro inaSaat baaga saOr krnao jaaeÐgao. ham sa:re ni�a:t ba:g s�r karne ja:y�ge. we all Nishat Bagh walk do-inf-abl go-fut All of us will go for a walk to Nishat Bagh.

Limiters such as isaf- sirf/ kovala keval/ �only� precede the head noun, whereas emphatic particles -hI -hi: �only� and BaI bhi: �also� follow the head noun.

15. kovala yao phlao dao baccao [imthana maoM baOzo. keval ye pahle do bacce imtiha:n m� b�t�he. only these first two children exam in satOnly these two children appeared in the examination.

16. kovala baccaa hI baaja,ar Aayaa.keval bacca: hi: ba:za:r a:ya:. only child-limiter market came Only the child came to the market.

17. maaÐ BaI Aa[- AaOr baccaa BaI. mã: bhi: a:yi: �r bacca: bhi:. mother also came and child too The mother came and so did the child.

Comparative, superlative and equative structures are formed by adding certain morphological forms after the head noun. The comparatives are formed by adding se after adding the ablative case markers to the genitive forms of the head noun.

18. naIrja saunaIla sao bauiwmaana hO.neeraj suni:l se buddhima:n h�. Neeraj Sunil than intelligent is Neeraj is more intelligent than Sunil.

19. vah maoro sao maaoTa hO.vah mere se mot�a: h�. he is me-gen-abl than fat is He is fatter than me.

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Superlatives are formed by adding sabasao sab se before the head noun.

20. sabasao laMbaa laD,ka kaOna hO? sabse lamba: lar �ka: k�n h�? superlative tall boy who isWho is the tallest boy?

21. AjaIt @laasa maoM sabasao CaoTa hO.aji:t kala:s m� sab se chot�a: h�. Ajit class in superlative young isAjit is the youngest of all in the class.

Equative structures are formed by adding a form of jaOsaa j�sa:/ jaOsao j�se/jaOsaI j�si: �like� that agrees with the head noun in gender and number.

22. AjaIt Amar jaOsaa caalaak hO. aji:t amar j�sa: ca:la:k h�. Ajit Amar like clever is Ajit is as clever as Amar.

23. hma ]na jaOsao caalaak nahIM hOM. ham un j�se ca:la:k nah�: h��.we they like clever not are We are not as clever as they are.

24. SaIlaa ]maa jaOsaI gaaorI nahIM hO. �i:la: uma: j�si: gori: nah�: h�. Shiela Uma like fair complexioned neg isShiela is not as fair-complexioned as Uma.

25. yao saoba ]na saobaaoM jaOsao maIzo hOM. ye seb un sebõ j�se mi:t�he h��.these apples those apples like delicious are These apples are as delicious as those ones are.

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The terms ek jaOsao ek j�se/ jaOsaI j�si: �as good as/alike� are also used in equative expressions.

26. yao dao Baa[- ek jaOsao do bha:i: ek j�se h��. these two brothers alike are These two brothers are alike.

27. yao bahnaoM ek jaOsaI bahn� ek j�si: h��.these sisters alike areThese sisters are alike.

There are certain co-occurrence restrictions. Indefinite determiners do not co-occur with ordinals. Similarly, the multiplicatives do notco-occur with collective or measure quantifiers. There are other usage constraints on modifiers. For example, the combination of indefinite determiners and cardinal quantifiers is possible; the combination of an indefinite determiner and a demonstrative pronoun in not allowed.

28. kao[- baccaa yah kama nahIM kr sakta. koi: bacca: yah ka:m nah�: kar sakta:. some/any(one) child this work neg do can-ptc No child can do this work.

28a. *kao[- vah baccaa yah kama nahIM kr sakta. *koi: vah bacca: yah ka:m nah�: kar sakta:.

Similarly, the combination of multiplicative and collective quantifiers do not yield well-formed sentences.

29. *duganaa jaaoD,a dstanaa *dugna: jor �i: dasta:na: twice pair gloves

As mentioned above, emphatic particles and limiters follow headnouns. All other constituents precede the head noun they modify. There is a flexibility in the word order of the preceding modifiers as illustrated below.

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Demonstrative - possessive - quantifier - adjective - head noun

30. yao maoro saaro AcCo ima~ye mere sa:re acche mitrthese my all good friendsall these good friends of mine

Possessive - demonstrative - quantifier - adverbial - adjective - noun

30a. maoro yao saaro bahut AcCo ima~ mere ye sa:re bahut acche mitrmy these all very good friends all these very good friends of mine

Demonstrative - quantifier - possessive - adverbial -adjective - noun

30b. yao saaro maoro bahut AcCo ima~ye sa:re mere bahut acche mitrthese all my very good friends

Possessive - quantifier - demonstrative - adverbial -adjective - noun

30c. maoro saaro yao bahut AcCo ima~ mere sa:re ye bahut acche mitrmy all these very good friends

Quantifier - demonstrative - possessive - adverbial -adjective - noun

30d. saaro yao maoro bahut AcCo ima~ sa:re ye mere bahut acche mitr

The word order constraint for adverbs and adjective is quite strict. The word order of the constituents of demonstrative, possessive andquantifier appear quite flexible.

4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases

A postpositional phrase is defined as a noun phrase followed by an oblique case marker and a postposition. Time adverbials take case markers as well as postpositions.

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1. vah savaoro Gar sao Aayaa. vah savere ghar se a:ya:. he morning-obl home from came He came in the morning from home.

1a. *vah savaora Aayaa ³Gar sao o*vah savera: a:ya: (ghar se).

2. AjaIt Saama kao kama krta hO. aji:t �a:m ko ka:m karta: h�. Ajit is evening-obl work do-ptc is Ajit works in the evening.

2a. *AjaIt Saama kama krta hO.*aji:t �a:m ka:m karta: h�.

3. ]sanao idna kao kuC nahIM Kayaa. usne din ko kuch nah�: kha:ya:. he-erg day-obl for nothing neg ate He didn�t eat anything during the day.

4. ]sanao idna Bar kuC nahIM Kayaa. usne din bhar kuch nah�: kha:ya:. he-erg day for nothing neg ate He didn�t eat anything for the whole day.

5. vah savaoro sao Saama tk kama krta hO. vah savere se �a:m tak ka:m karta: h�. he morning-obl from evening up to work do-ptc is He works from morning till evening.

The use of the direct forms of the time adverbials savaora savera: and Saama �a:m in sentences (1a) and (2a) make them ungrammatical.

A postposition may be added to simple or compound noun phrases that consist of more than one element.

6. hmaaro dF,tr saohama:re daftar se

our-obl office from from our office

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7. makana ko drvaaja,o saomaka:n ke darva:ze sehouse of door-obl fromfrom the door of the house

Notice that the presence of a postposition changes all the elements of the compound noun phrase from direct to oblique by adding the oblique case markers.

There are a limited number of compound postpositions used in Hindisuch as Aagao a:ge/ pICo kI Aaor pi:che ki: or �in front/back of�, and da[-M da:�:/ baa[-M Aaor ba:�: or �towards right/left�. All these are directional.The first element indicates the direction, and is followed by thepostpositional form kI Aaor ki: or �toward�. They are always used after the oblique noun. Notice that a free postposition without an argument functions as an adverb.

It is possible to modify postpositions by using a limiter tk tak �up to/till,� or a particle hI hi: �only.�

8. vah Saama tk phuÐcaogaa. vah �a:m tak pah�cega:.he evening up to reach-m He will reach by evening.

9. tuma iktaba maoja, pr hI rKao.tum kita:b mez par hi: rakho. you book table on emp keep You just keep the book on the table.

4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases

Adjective phrases are of two types: simple and complex. Simpleadjectives may also be divided into basic and derived adjectives. The derived adjectives are derived from other word classes such as nouns. The examples of basic adjectives are: AcCa accha: �good,� laMbaa lamba: �long,� saaf, sa:f �clean,� etc. Derived adjectives are derived from nouns:

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maohnat mehnat hard work

+ [- i: = maohnatI mehnati: hard worker

ihmmat himmat courage + [- i: = ihmmatI himmati: courageous daZ,I da:r�hi: beard + vaalaa

va:la:= daZ,I vaalaa da:r�hi: va:la:bearded

Adjectives may also be derived from adverbs:

pICo pi:che behind + laa la: = ipClaa pichla: last naja,dIk nazdi:k near + [- i = naja,dIkI nazdi:ki: close one

The use of the forms of vaalaa va:la: and genitive markers ka ka:/ ko ke/kI ki: are frequently employed in the derivation of adjectives. Their forms agree with the following noun in number and and gender as follows:

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl vaalaa va:la: vaalao va:le vaalaI va:li: vaalaI va:li:-ka ka: -ko ke -kI ki: -kI ki:

1. idllaI vaalaa dukanadardilli: va:la: duka:nda:rDelhi of shopkeeper the shopkeeper from Delhi

2. dUr ka irSatodar du:r ka: ri�teda:r distance of relative a distant relative

Complex adjectives are finite (full relative clauses) as well as non-finite (participle used as adjectives). Adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify.

It is difficult to define adjective phrases because adjectives are not distinguished morphologically from nouns. However, it is possible to distinguish an adjectival phrase from a noun phrase because: (1) the semantics of adjectives is quite distinct from that of nouns; (2) an adjective phrase functions as a modifier for a substantive; (3)

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some adjectives are bound forms and their surface form isdetermined by the number and gender of a following noun. In nouns the gender is marked inherently; (4) adjectives usually precede ahead noun and occur in the attributive position. The word order of adjectives with respect to other constituents of an adjective phrase isas follows: determiner - quantifier - adjective - noun.

3. yao dao laMbaI kmaIja,oMye do lambi: kami:z�these-f two long-fp shirtsthese two long shirts

There are two types of adjectives: those which do not take a complement, and those which do take a complement. Adjectives likemaOlaa m�la: dirty do not take a complement, whereas adjectives like tOyaar taya:r ready do take it. The latter type of adjectives with theircomplements occurs attributively.

4. kpD,o Qaaonao ko ilae tOyaar laD,kakapr�e dhone ke liye t�ya:r lar�ka: clothes wash-inf-obl for ready boy the boy who is ready to wash clothes

4a. *tOyaar laD,ka *t�ya:r lar�ka:

4b. laD,ka tOyaar hO. lar�ka: t�ya:r h�.The boy is ready.

Adjectives can be either stative (AcCa accha: good, sauMdr sundarbeautiful) or non-stative (p`sanna prasann �happy�, naaraja, na:ra:z�angry�).

The adverbs of degree in their basic form can serve as modifiers ofadjectives.

5a. yah bahut baD,a/CaoTa poD, hO.yeh bahut bar�a:/chot�a: per� h�. this very big/ small tree is This is a very big/small tree.

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The marker �hI -hi: can be added to adverbs of degree for intensification of meaning.

5b. yah bahut hI baD,a/CaoTa poD, hO.yeh bahut hi: bar�a:/chot�a: per� h�This is a very big/small tree.

4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases

Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound postposition to a noun.

1. tIna mahInao ko baadti:n mahi:ne ke ba:d

three month-obl after after three months

2. pZ,nao sao phlaopar�hne se pahle

read-inf-obl before before reading

3. dukana ko pICoduka:n ke pi:che shop-obl back side in the back of the shop

Adverbs are reduplicated to show intensity and distribution.

4. Aap khaÐ khaÐ gae?a:p kahã: kahã: gaye?you-p where where went Which places did you visit?

5. vah kba kba Anaupisqat rhI? vah kab kab anupasthit rahi:? she when absent remained-fs On which dates did she remain absent?

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6. vah kBaI kBaI yahaÐ Aata hO. vah kabhi: kabhi: yahã: a:ta: h�. he sometimes here come-ptc is He comes here sometimes.

Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle na naas in the phrases kBaI na kBaI kabhi: na kabhi: �sometime or other�. This category of adverbials expresses indefiniteness.

7. vah kBaI na kBaI ja,$r Aaegaa.vah kabhi: na kabhi: zaru:r a:yega:.he sometime neg sometime definitely come-fut He will come sometime or other.

The emphatic particle hI hi: can occur with an adverb or a noun to render an adverbial reading.

8. vah kovala samaya hI naYT krta hO. vah keval samay hi: na�t� karta: h�. he is only time-emp waste do-ptc isHe merely wastes time.

9. Amar hI Aaegaa maaohna nahIM Aaegaa. amar hi: a:yega: mohan nah�: a:yega:.Amar-emp come-fut Mohan neg come-fut Only Amar will come, not Mohan.

Various case markers and postpositions are employed with a noun to render an adverbial reading, for example, savaoro savere �in the morning�, dIvaar pr di:va:r par �on the wall�, Gar sao ghar se �from the house�, and caakU sao ca:ku: se �with the knife�.

10. vah savaoro jaldI dF,tr jaata hO. vah savere jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h�he morning-obl early office go-ptc is He goes to his office early in the morning.

11. yah tsvaIr dIvaar pr TaÐgaao. yeh tasvi:r di:va:r par tã:go.this picture wall on hangHang this picture on the wall.

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12. maOM kla Gar sao Aa}MÐgaa. m�� kal ghar se a:�:ga:.I tomorrow home from come-futI�ll come from home tomorrow.

13. saoba caakU sao kaTao.seb ca:ku: se ka:t�o. apple knife with cutCut the apple with the knife.

Adverbials may precede or follow the direct object depending on theemphasis given to it in the sentence. Compare the examples (10-13) with (10a-13a).

10a. savaoro vah jaldI dF,tr jaata hO. savere vah jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h�.

11a. dIvaar pr yah tsvaIr TaMÐgaao.di:va:r par yeh tasvi:r tã:go.

12a. Gar sao maOM kla Aa}Ðgaa. ghar se m�� kal a�:ga:.

13a. caakU sao saoba kaTao. ca:ku: se seb ka:t �o.

Certain adverbs of degree and derived adverbs with j�sa: like can sometimes serve as adverbial modifiers of an adverb.

14. toja, daOD,.tez d�r�

fast run Run fast.

14a. baccaaoM jaOsaI toja, daOD,baccõ j�si: tez d�r�children-obl like fast run as fast as children run

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Adverbials are always optional and not obligatory in any construction.

4.2. Structure of Clauses

In this section major constituents of a sentence namely subordinate clauses, main clauses (or noun clauses), relative clauses, adverbialclauses are discussed.

4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite. Finiteclauses normally have the same sentence structure as main clauses.Sometimes they may precede the main clause due to the consideration of focus. Consider the following examples:

Main clause 1. vah Aaegaa.

vah a:yega:. he come-fu He�ll come.

Subordinate clause 1a. mauJao AaSaa hO ik vah Aaegaa.

mujhe a:�a: h� ki vah a:yega:. I-obl hope that he come-fut I hope that he will come.

1b. *ik vah Aaegaa mauJao AaSaa hO*ki vah a:yega: mujhe a:�a: h�

In case non-finite clause precedes the main clause due to the consideration of focus, the complimentizer is dropped and the element yah yeh this is added in the initial position of the main clause.

1c. vah Aaegaa yah maorI AaSaa hO. vah a:yega:, yeh meri: a:�a: h�. he come-fut, this my hope isI hope that he will come.

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Non-finite subordinate clauses are structurally quite distinct from the main clauses. They are marked by (i) verb modification, (ii) lack of agreement, and (iii) word order. The subordinate verb undergoes a process of verbal participation or infinitivization/gerundivization. The subordinate verb does not agree with subject and/or object in number and gender and is not marked for tense.

Participle subordinate verb 2. vah icallaato hue inaklaa.

vah cilla:te hue nikla:. he shriek-ptc left He left shrieking.

The infinitive subordinate clause with an adverbial phrase can be putin the initial position.

3. maora vaaipsa Aanaa maumaikna nahIM.mera: va:pas a:na: mumkin nah�:. my return come-inf possible neg It is not possible for me to come back.

4. maSaIna cala rhI�i:n cal rahi: thi:. machine move prog was The machine was working.

4a. vah calatI maSaIna kao doK rha qaa.vah calti: ma�i:n (ko) dekh raha: tha:.he running machine-dat see-prog was He was watching the running machine.

4b. *vah maSaIna cala rhI qaI doK rha qaa*vah ma�i:n cal rahi: thi: dekh raha: tha:.

4.2.2. Noun Clauses

Noun clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite.

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181 Finite Noun Clauses

Finite noun clauses are introduced by the subordinator / complementizer ki that and follow the main clause verb. They function as subjects, direct objects, or complements of the mainpredicate. Finite subject clauses usually occur as subjects of adjectival predicates such as saca sac �true�, saaf, sa:f/ spYT spa�t� �clear�,and maumaikna mumkin/ saMBava sambhav �possible�.

1. yah saca hO ik maaohna baImaar hO. yeh sac h� ki mohan bi:ma:r h�. it true is that Mohan sick isIt is true that Mohan is sick.

1a. yah saaf, / spYT qaa ik maaohna baImaar qaa.yeh sa:f/spa�t� tha: ki mohan bi:ma:r tha:. it clear was that Mohan sick wasIt was clear that Mohan was sick. The ik ki Complement Clauses

ki that complement clauses are usually governed by verbs like jaananaa ja:nna: �to know�, pta haonaa pata: hona: �to know�, khnaa kahna: �to say�, doKnaa dekhna: �to see�, and laganaa lagna: �to appear/seem�.Consider the following examples.

2. maOM jaanata qaa ik baf,- igarogaI. m�� ja:nta: tha: ki barf giregi:.I know-ptc was that snow fall-fut I knew that it would snow.

3. mauJao lagaa ik vah baImaar hO. mujhe laga: ki vah bi:ma:r h�. I-obl felt that he sick is It seemed to me that he was sick.

The verb caahnaa cahna: �to wish, desire� in the matrix clause selects aconditional verb form in its complement clause.

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4. maOM caahta hUРik vah [imthana do.m�� ca:hta: h�: ki vah imtiha:n de.I desire-ptc am that he exam giveI wish that he appears in examination. Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and indirect speech are not distinguished by the use of any syntactic device, such as a quotative marker or particle. However, both quoted and reported material may be preceded by the complementizer ik ki that which is subordinate to the higher verb of communication in the matrix sentence, such as kh kah- �say�, pUCpu:ch- �ask�, ilaK likh- �write�, sauna sun- �hear�, saaoca soc �think�, caah ca:h�desire/want�.

5. ]sanao kha ik dvaa K,rIdao.usne kaha: ki dava: xari:do. he-erg said that medicine buy He said, buy medicine.

6. }Yaa nao pUCa ik maOM @yaaoM gaaMÐva jaa}Ðgaa?u:�a: ne pu:cha: ki m�� kyõ ga:�: ja:�:ga:? Usha-erg asked that I why village go-fut Usha asked, why should I go to the village?

7. maaohna nao ilaKa ik tuma yah iktaba pZ,ao.mohan ne likha: ki tum yah kita:b par�ho.Mohan-erg wrote that you this book read Mohan wrote, Read this book.

8. hmanao saunaa ik vah Da^@Tr hO.. hamne suna: ki vah d�a:kt�ar h�. we-erg heard that he doctor is We heard that he is a doctor.

9. maOMnao saaocaa ik vah nahIM Aaegaa. m��ne soca: ki vah nah�: a:yega:. I-erg thought that he neg come-fut I thought that he would not come.

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Verbs like sauna sun-, saaoca soc- are �hear/say� type verbs, and they usually occur as higher verbs in reported speech. In sentences (7-9),the complementizer ik ki precedes quoted material and in sentences (10-11), it precedes the reported material. The complementizer isfrequently omitted. In Hindi, direct speech is preferred to indirect speech. Sentence (12) may appear ambiguous.

10. rama nao kha (ik) vah iktaba pZ,ogaa.ra:mne kaha: (ki) vah kita:b par�hega:.Ram-erg said (that) he bookread-3s-fut (a) Ram(i) said, he(j) will read the book.(b) Ram(i) said that he(i) will read the book.

In (a) Ram and the noun and pronoun are not co-referential, and in(b) they are. In this sentence, the first or direct speech reading is preferred to the second or indirect speech reading. Instead of usingindirect speech, it would be more natural to use direct speech in the second meaning as in (11).

11. rama nao kha (ik) maOM iktaba pZ,UÐgaa.ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m�� kita:b par��:ga:Ram-erg said (that) I book read-1s-fut Ram said, I�ll read a book.

Sometimes direct and indirect speech can be differentiated with thehelp of number and gender markers. For instance, the gender discrepancy between the matrix verb and the embedded verb mayindicate an indirect quotation.

12. rama nao kha (ik) maOM p~ ilaK rha hUÐ.ra:mne kaha: (ki) m�� patr likh raha: h�: Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog am Ram (i) said, I(i)m writing a letter.Ram (i) said that I (j) am writing a letter.

12a. rama nao kha (ik) maOM p~ ilaK rhI hUÐ. ra:mne kaha: (ki) m�� patr likh rahi: h�: Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog.fs am Ram(i) said that I(j) am writing a letter. *Ram(i) said that I(i) am writing a letter.

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In (12a) the auxiliary verb of the embedded sentence is feminine, therefore it cannot be co-referential with Ram. Whereas in (12), the verb of the embedded sentence is co-referential with the verb of the matrix sentence. Sentence (12) can be disambiguated by adding areflexive pronoun svayaM svayam/ Apnao Aap apne a:p �self�.

12b. rama nao kha (ik) maOM svayaM Apnao Aap p~ ilaK rha hUÐ.ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m�� svayam/apne a:p patrlikh raha: h�:. Ram-erg said (that) I self letter am Ram (i) said, Im (i) writing a letter myself.

Similarly, the nominalization of an embedded sentence may alsoresult in a reported speech interpretation.

13. rama nao maoro/Apnao Aap p~ ilaKnao ko baaro maoM kha. ra:m ne mere/apne a:p patr likhne ke ba:re m� kaha:.Ram-erg my/he-refl letter write-inf-obl about saidRam told about my/his writing the letter.

Thus, there are no quotative markers to distinguish between direct and indirect speech. Direct speech is preferred over indirect speech. Non-finite Noun Clause

A non-finite noun clause may consist of an infinitive (or gerundive) verb form. Infinitive gerundive forms can precede or follow the matrix clause and are inflected for case like other types of nounclauses. Non-finite noun clauses change the embedded verb into its infinitival form (stem + naa na:) which lacks subject - verb agreement and tense information. The infinitival form is like a derived noun which can take case markers and postpositions. The oblique form of the infinitival ends in -naa -na:. When changing finite noun clauses into nonfinite clauses, certain morphological markers like person, number, tense, aspectual suffixes are lost.

Finite verb Infinitival formpZ, par�h read pZ,naa par�hna: to read

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14a. maOM pZ,UÐgaa. (m��) par�h�:ga:.

(I)read-1s-fut I�ll read.

14b. hma pZ,oMgao. (ham) par�h�ge.

(we) read-1p-fut We�ll read.

14c. kBaI doKa nahIM hO. (ve) par�h�ge.

(they) read-3p-fut They�ll read.

Notice that -naa -na: is added to the verb stem in the formation of the infinitive form.

15. maora pZ,naa ]sao psaMd nahIM Aayaa.mera: par�hna: use pasand nah�: a:ya:. my read-inf he-dat like neg cameHe did not like me to read.

16. mauJao pZ,naa psaMd hO. mujhe par�hna: pasand h�. I-obl read-Inf like is I like to read.

Noun clauses can function as subjects, direct objects, postpositionalobjects, and adverbials.

Verbs are made non-finite by the processes of infinitivization and participialization. Infinitivizaton is the result of adding the suffix �naa-na: to the verbal stem. There are three groups of participial constructions: (i) present participle, (ii) past participle, and (iii) agentive participle. The present participle indicates ongoing action or process, the past participle indicates completed action or process,and the agentive participle indicates a habitual or potential action or process.

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17. vah pZ,a - ilaKa laD,ka hO. vah par�ha: - likha: lar�ka: h�. he read-past-ms write-past-ms boy isHe is a literate boy.

17a. vah pZI - ilaKI laD,kI hO.vah par�hi: - likhi: lar�ki: thi:. she read-past-fs write- past-fs girl wasShe was a literate girl.

17b. pZ,nao ilaKnao vaalaa laD,ka samaya baba-ad nahIM krta. par�hne likhne va:la: lar�ka: samay barba:d nah�: karta:. read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy time waste neg do-ptc The boy who studies does not waste time.

Notice that participial forms remain unaltered in the present and past participles. It is the auxiliary which takes person, gender, number, and tense markers. The participial forms agree with the following nouns in number and gender.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl ka ka: ko ke kI ki: kI ki:

18. ]saka ]maa kao kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa. uska: uma: ko kal yeh kahna: accha: nah�: tha:.he-gen Uma-dat yesterday this say-inf good neg was His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper.

The word order of non-finite noun clauses remains unchanged. The focus-related movements to the left of the non-finite verb yield well-formed sentences. Examples of various movements of non-finitenoun clauses are given as follows:

Leftward movements of indirect objects18a. ]maa kao ]saka kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa.

uma: ko uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nah�: tha:.Uma-dat his yesterday this say-inf good neg was His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper.

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Leftward movement of the time adverb18b. kla ]saka ]maa kao yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa.

kal uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nah�: tha:.

Notice that no constituent of the non-finite noun clauses can be moved to a position following the non-finite verb khnaa kahna: �to say� as below.

Rightward movement of indirect object 18c. *]saka kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa ]maa kao.

uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nah�: tha: uma: ko.

Rightward movement of time adverb18d. *]saka ]maa kao yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa kla.

uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nah�: tha: kal.

4.2.3. Relative Clauses

There are two types of relative clause constructions: finite and non-finite participial relative clauses. The finite relative clauses maintain full sentence structures with subject verb agreement and are very common. Participial relative clauses exhibit the non-finite form of the verb. The former is more explicit than the latter. The former type is also labeled as the real relative clause.

In the formation of finite relative clauses, the relative marker jaao jo �who�, which is placed in front of the relativized element, thecorrelative marker vah vah �that� is placed at the beginning of the head noun, and the second identical or co-referential noun phrase may be deleted. The forms of relative and correlative markers are given below.

Relative markers Direct Oblique Sg Pl Sg Pl jaao jo jaao jo ijasa jis ijana jin

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Correlative markers vah vah vao ve ]sa us ]na un

The relative marker begins with a ja /j/ sound, whereas correlative markers begin with va / v/ and ] /u/ sounds. In the direct case, the noun is not followed by a postposition and when it is, it is in the oblique case. The relative and correlative markers change for thenumber and case of the noun. The forms are as follows.

DirectRelative Pronouns Correlative PronounsSg Pl Sg Pl jaao jo jaao jo vah vah vao ve

Oblique ijasa jis ijana jin ]sa us ]na un ijasao jise ijanhoM jinh� ]sao use ]nhoM unh�ijasakao jisko ijanakao jinko ]sakao usko ]nakao unkoijasasao jisse ijanasao jinse ]sasao usse ]nasao unse ijasanao jisne ijanhaoMnao jinhõne ]sanao usne ]nhaoMnao unhõne

In the examples given below, the symbol � indicates the presumed site of relativized and head NP prior to deletion.

1. jaao laD,ka idllaI maoM rhta hO vah � maora Baa[- hO.

jo lar�ka: dilli m� rahta: h� vah � mera: bha:i: h�. rel boy Delhi-loc live-ptc is cor -� my brother is The boy, who lives in Delhi, is my brother.

Sentence (1) consists of two clauses which share an identical and co-referential noun phrase.

Main clause:laD,ka maora Baa[- hO.lar�ka: mera: bha:i: h�. The boy is my brother.

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Relative clause:laD,ka idllaI maoM rhta hOO.lar�ka: dilli: m� rahta: h�. The boy lives in Delhi.

Here the relative clause takes the relative pronoun jaao jo, whereas thecorrelative clause takes the correlative pronoun vah vah. When the relative clause precedes the main clause it results in the sentence(1a):

1a. [jaao laD,ka idllaI maoM rhta hO] vah laD,ka maora Baa[- hO.[jo lar�ka: dilli m� rahta: h�] vah lar�ka: mera: bha:i: h�.

The second occurrence of laD,ka lar�ka: is deleted to yield sentence (1b). There are two other possibilities for relative clauses: (i) the relative clause may follow the head noun phrase (1b), and (ii) the relative clause may follow the correlative clause (1c).

1b. vah laD,ka [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO] maora Baa[- hO.vah lar�ka: [jo dilli: m� rahta: h�] mera: bha:i: h�.

1c. vah laD,ka maora Baa[- hO [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO].vah lar�ka: mera: bha:i: h� [jo dilli: m� rahta: h�].

Notice that the participial relative clause is formed by (i) deleting the relativized noun phrase, and (ii) changing the verb into aparticipial form by adding the suffix -ta -ta: for the present participle and -nao vaalaa -ne va:la: for the agentive participle. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses

The restrictive relative clauses allow three possible word orders asgiven above (1a-1c). The non-restrictive relative clauses are those where some extra but relevant information is provided about the antecedent head noun. They allow only one word order in which theadditional information follows the head noun.

2. naoh$ [jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao]nehru: [jo bha:rat ke pradha:n mantri: the]Nehru who India-gen first prime minister was

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[lhabaad maoM janmao.ilha:ba:d m� janme. Allahabad in bornNehru, who was the first prime minister of India, was born atAllahabad.

2a. *naoh$ janmao [lhabaad maoM [jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao] *nehru: janme ilha:ba:d m� [jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:nmantri: the].

2b. *[jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao] vao naoh$ [lahabad maoM janmao.*[jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the] ve nehru: illha:ba:d m� janme. There are no word order differences between a restrictive and a non-restrictive participial relative clause.

3. [� idllaI maoM rhnao vaalaa laD,ka] maora Baa[- hO.

[� dilli: m� rahne va:la: lar�ka:] mera: bha:i: h�. Delhi in live-inf-obl gen boy my brother is The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother.

4. [lhabaad maoM janma laonao vaalao naoh$ Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao.ilha:ba:d m� janm lene va:le nehru: bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the. Born at Allahabad, Nehru was the first prime minister of India.

The relative clause may precede or follow the head noun. The non-restrictive relative clause always follows the head noun. In general,the participial relative clauses precede the head noun.

The form of the relativized element in the relative clausecorresponding to the head noun (i.e., the relativized element) is usually preserved in full when the relative clause precedes the main clause. Alternately, it is deleted. It is pronominalized when the headis a pronoun.

5. vah [jaao maohnat krta hO ] ]nnait krta hO.vah [jo mehnat karta: h� ] unnati: karta: h�. He who hard work do-pr is progress do-pr is He who works hard progresses.

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Here the second occurrence of the identical noun phrase is nominalized. The antecedent noun phrase may undergo deletion too, as in sentence (6).

6. [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO] vah laD,ka maora Baa[- hO.[jo dilli: m� rahta: h�] vah lar�ka: mera: bha:i: h�. Who Delhi in stay is he boy my brother is The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother.

The original position of the relativized element usually remains unchanged. In case the relative constituent is placed in the beginning of the clause, the effect is that of contrastive focus.

7. maOMnao vah laoK pZ,a [jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO.] m��ne vah lekh par�ha: [jo sarita: ne likha: h�].I-erg that essay read which Sarita-erg write is I read the essay which was written by Salim.

The place of the relativized direct object is usually in the preverbal position. The placement of the relativized object NP to the relative clause initial position indicates focus on the relativized NP. The relativized adverbials and indirect objects can undergo similar movement.

7a. [maOMnao vah laoK pZ,a] jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO.[m��ne vah lekh par�ha:] jo sarita: ne likha: h�.I-erg that essay read which Salim-erg wrote isI read the essay which Sarita wrote.

If the relative clause occurs to the left of the main clause, therelativized element can be placed in the sentence initial position.

7b. [jaao laoK sairta nao ilaKa hO] maOMnao pZ,a vah.[jo lekh sarita: ne likha: h�] m��ne par�ha: vah.which essay sarita-erg wrote I read that I read the essay which was written by Sarita.

In the third order, the relative clause follows immediately after the head NP.

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7c. maOMnao pZ,a vah laoK jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO.m��ne par�ha: vah lekh jo sarita: ne likha: h�. I read that write which Sarita-erg wrote is I read the essay written by Sarita.

In a headless relative clause, the relative clause cannot be placed immediately after the head NP.

8. [raja nao jaao saunaa] maOMnao saunaa nahIM. [ra:j ne jo suna:] m��ne suna: nah�:. Raj-erg rel heard I-erg hear notI didnt hear what Raj heard.

However, it is possible to place the relative clause to the right of themain clause.

8a. maOMnao saunaa nahIM [jaao raja nao saunaa.] m��ne suna: nah�: [jo ra:j ne suna:.].I didnt hear what Raj heard.

All the constituents of a main clause except the verb can be relativized in a finite relative clause.

Relativization of subject 9. vah AadmaI [jaao � Aayaa:]

vah a:dmi: [jo � a:ya:]cor person rel came the person who came

Relativization of direct object10. vah AadmaI [ijasao � maOM yahaM laayaa:]

vah a:dmi: [jise � m�� yahã: la:ya:]cor person rel I here brought the person whom I brought here

Relativization of indirect object 11. vah AadmaI [ijasao � maOMnao iktaba dI]

vah a:dmi: [jise � m��ne kita:b di:]cor person rel I-erg watch gave the person who I gave the book

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Relativization of adjunct (object of associative postposition)12. vah AadmaI [ijasako � saaqa maOM idllaI gayaa]

vah a:dmi: [jiske � sa:th m�� dilli: gaya:]cor person rel with I Delhi went the person with whom I went to Delhi

Relativization of adjunct (object of a locative postposition)13. vah dF,tr [ijasamaoM � maOM kama krta hUÐ]

vah daftar [jis � m� m�� ka:m karta: h�:]cor office rel in I work do-ptc am the office in which I work

Relativization of possessor noun 14. vah AadmaI [ijasaka � yah makana hO]

vah a:dmi: [jiska: � yeh maka:n h� ] cor person rel-poss this house is the man whose house this is

Relativization of object of comparison 15. vah makana [ijasasao � yah makana baD,a hO]

vah maka:n [jisse � yeh maka:n bar�a: h�] cor house rel than this house big is the house which is smaller than this house

Relativization of a subordinate subject 16. vah laD,ka [jaao � ]maa nao kha hakI Kolata hO] gayaa.

vah lar�ka: [jo � uma: ne kaha: ha:ki: khelta: h�] gaya:.rel boy cor Uma-erg said play-ptc hockey is went The boy that Uma said plays hockey has gone.

Relativization of a subordinate direct object 17. vah TaopI [jaao � [rajaa nao kha []maa nao baunaI hO]]

vah t�opi: [jo � [ra:ja: ne kaha: [uma: ne buni: h�]] rel cap that Raja-erg said Uma-erg has knitted maoro pasa hO.mere pass h�.

me-poss isThe cap that Raja said Uma knitted is with me.

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Relativization of subordinate indirect object 18. vah laD,ka [ ijasao � [maaohna nao kha ik rajaa nao iktaba dI]] Aayaa.

vah lar�ka:[jise�[mohan ne kaha: ki ra:ja: ne kita:b di:]a:ya:.rel boy cor Mohan-erg said that Raja-erg book gaveThe boy that Mohan said Raja gave a book to came.

Relativization of object of a postpositional adverbial phrase 19. vah kalaoja [ ijasa � maoM [AjaIt nao kha [ik ]maa

vah ka:lej [jis � m� [aji:t ne kaha: [ki uma: rel college cor in Ajit-erg said that kama kr rhI hO]]] CaoTa hO.ka:m kar rahi: h�]]] chot�a: h�. Uma work do-ing is small is The college that Ajit said Uma works at is small.

Relativization of object of comparison in subordinate clause 20. vah makana [ ijasa � sao [AjaIt nao kha [ik maora makana

vah maka:n [jis � se [aji:t ne kaha: [ki mera: maka:n rel house cor than Ajit-erg said that baD,a hO]]] dUr nahIM�a: h�]]] du:r nah�: h�. my office is big is far not isThe house that Ajit said that my house is bigger than it is not far way. Non-finite Relative Clauses

Participial/non-finite relative clauses allow the subject and the direct object constituent to undergo the process of relativization. However, the indirect object etc. cannot undergo relativization.

Relativization of subject 21. [ � baZ,ta (huAa) ] baccaa

[� bar�hta: (hua:)] bacca: grow-pst-ms (part.) child

the growing child

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22. [ � pZ,nao ilaKnao vaalaa ] laD,ka

[� par�hne likhne va:la:] lar�ka: read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy the boy who is studying (Lit. the studying boy)

Relativization of direct object23. []sakI K,rIdI hu[- ] iktaba

[uski: xari:di: hui:] kita:b his buy-pst-fs bookthe book bought by him

Indirect object 24. *[ � iktaba dI hu[- ] laD,kI

*[� kita:b di: hui:] lar�ki:the girl to whom the book is given

Any constituent of a subordinate relative clause, except the verbs, can be relativized. Finite Relative Clauses

In finite relative clause modifiers, the possessor elements of the noun phrase can be subjected to further relativization. Also any constituent of a relative clause can be subjected to further relativization.

Relativization of possessor 25. vah Da@Tr [ijasaka maaohna dvaa[- Kata hO] AcCa nahIM hO.

vah d�a:kt �ar [jiska: mohan dava:i: kha:ta: h�] accha: nah�: h�.rel doctor cor-poss Mohan medicine eating is good neg is The doctor whose (prescribed) medicine Mohan is taking isnot good.

Relativization of modifier 26. yah dUQa ]tnaa gama- nahIM hO ijatnaa (gama-) maOM caahta qaa.

yeh du:dh utna: garm nah�: h� jitna: (garm) m�� ca:hta: tha:. this milk rel hot neg is cor hot I wantedThis milk is not as hot as I wanted.

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Relativization of a constituent of a relative clause 27. vah maoja, [ jaao � [mauJao pta qaa [ik Aapnao K,rIda]

vah mez [jo � [mujhe pata: tha: [ki a:pne xari:da:]that table cor I know was that you-erg bought]tnaa baD,a nahIM hO ijatnaa maora hO.utna: bar�a: nah�: h� jitna: mera: h�. rel big neg is cor mine is The table that I know you bought is not as big as mine.

The participialization, however, does not allow relativization of any constituent of a relative clause.

The noun phrases in postpositional phrases can be relativized by the finite relativization strategy. The constituents within coordinate noun phrases can be relativized.

28. vah laD,ka [ jaao � maoro Baa[- ka daost hO] caalaak hO.

vah lar�ka: [jo � mere bha:i: ka: dost h�] ca:la:k h�. cor boy rel my brother of friend is clever is The boy who is a friend of my brother is clever.

Elements within coordinate verb phrases and coordinate sentencescan also be relativized. In (29) an element of the first conjunct of acoordinate verb phrase is conjoined.

29. vah laoK [ jaao � maOMnao pZ,a AaOr p~ ilaKa] AcCa hO.

vah lekh [jo � ��ne par�ha: �r patr likha:] accha: h�. cor article rel I-erg read and letter wrote good is The article which I read and wrote a letter about is good.

This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in which the first stimulates the second one. The two actions, thusjoined, are not independent of each other. In (30) an element of thesecond conjunct of a coordinate verb phrase is relativized.

30. maOMnao laoK pZ,a AaOr jaao p~ ilaKa vah AcCa hO. m��ne lekh par�ha: �r jo patr likha: vah accha: h�. I-erg article read and cor letter wrote rel good is I read an article and the wrote a good letter about it.

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This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in which the meaning after doing one thing the second one is done is implied. Therefore it appears like a participial construction. The preferred version will be (30a).

30a. laoK pZ,kr jaao p~ maOMnao ilaKa vah AcCa hO.lekh par�hkar jo patr m��ne likha: vah accha: h�. article read-cp cor letter I-erg wrote rel good is After reading the article, I wrote a good letter about it.

The relativization of the first or second conjunct elements of a coordinate sentence result in ill-formed sentences.

31. *vah laoK [ jaao maOMnao pZ,a AaOr maaohna nao p~ ilaKa] AcCa hO. *vah lekh jo m��ne par�ha: �r mohan ne patr likha: accha: h�. *The essay which I read and Mohan wrote a letter is good.

31a. *maOMnaO laoK pZ,a AaOr maaohna nao jaao p~ ilaKa vah AcCa hO. *m��ne lekh par�ha: �r mohan ne jo patr likha: vah accha: h�. *I read the essay and the letter which Mohan wrote is good.

The order of pre-sentential and post-sentential positions of relative with reference to a correlative clause, also yield well-formed sentences.

32. [ jaao � maOMnao pZ,a AaOr p~ ilaKa] vah laoK AcCa hO.

[jo � m��ne par�ha: �r patr likha:] vah lekh accha: h�. which I-erg read and letter wrote rel essay good is The essay which I read, and wrote a letter about is good.

32a. vah laoK AcCa hO [jaao � maOMnao pZ,a AaOr p~ ilaKa.]

vah lekh accha: h� [jo � m��ne par�ha: �r patr likha:].he write good is which I read and letter write That essay is good which I read and wrote a letter about.

Notice that a conjunct intervening between a relative and acorrelative clause is less preferred. Therefore, sentence (32a) morepreferred than (32). The relativized element can be moved within the constituents and sometimes to the initial position for theconsideration of focus.

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Mostly the relative clauses favor the finite relativization strategy. The participilization strategy, which is non-finite in nature, is subject to various syntactic and semantic constraints as pointed out above.

4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses

Adverbial clauses are marked by (a) the finite form of the verb, or (b) the non-finite form of the verb. Finite adverbial clauses can be placed in pre-sentential as well as post-sentential position. The unmarked order of a nonfinite adverbial clause is at the pre-verbal or post-verbal position. There are time, manner, purpose, cause, condition, concession, and degree adverbial clauses. Adverbial Clauses of Time

There are three kinds of the adverbial clauses: (a) finite clauses withrelative clauses like time markers such as yaid yedi �if�, (b) participial (non-finite) adverbial constructions, and (c) the infinitival constructions.

(a) Finite clauses with relative clause time markers

Some of the adverbial markers in this category are jaba jab �when�, jaba sao jab se �since�, and jyaaoMhI jyõhi: �as soon as�.

1. jaba vah Aaegaa maOMo BaI Aa}Ðgaa.jab vah a:yega: m�� bhi: a:�:ga:.when he come-fut I too come-futWhen he comes, I�ll come too.

2. jaba maOM jaata hUР(tba) vah BaI jaata hO.jab m�� ja:ta: h�: (tab) vah bhi: ja:ta: h�. when I go-ptc am (then) he too go-ptc is When I go, (then) he goes too.

3. jabasao vah yahaM Aayaa (tbasao) hma saaqa saaqa kama krto hOM.jabse vah yahã: a:ya: (tabse) ham sa:th-sa:th ka:m karte h��. cor-from he came here rel-from we together work do-ptc are Weve worked together since he came here.

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In sentences (2) and (3), time adverbial clauses are introduced by the markers jaba jab and jaba sao jab se respectively. Like relative clauses,they distinguish themselves from question words which begin with k k. The time clause contains a finite verb with tense aspect information. The time marker jaba jab denotes a sequence of events (2) and simultaneous events (3) respectively. It is important to note that the relative clause time markers jaba jab or jaba sao jab se do notundergo deletion as do the correlative markers tba tab and tba sao tab se.

(b) Participial (non-finite) constructions

Four participial constructions, present participle, past participle, absolutive and the as soon as participle, also act as time adverbials. The present and past participles agree in gender and number with the subject of the main clause, whereas the last two do not undergo any agreement changes.

4. maaohna daOD,ta Aayaa.mohan d�r�ta: a:ya:. Mohan run-ptc came

Mohan came running.

5. AF,sar nao kusaI- pr baOzkr pUCaafsar ne kursi: par b�t�hkar pu:cha:officer chair on sit-cp asked the officer asked, sitting on the chair

6. Gar phuÐcakr ]sanao TolaIfaona ikyaa. ghar pah�ckar usne t�eliphon kiya:. home reach-pp she-erg telephone did She telephoned after reaching home.

7. Aato hI ]sanao yah savaala pUCa. a:te hi: usne yah sava:l pu:cha:. come-emp he-erg this question asked As soon as he came, he asked this question.

A present participle expresses an ongoing action or process. It takes the progressive aspect in the subordinate clause.

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8a. maaohna ]sa samaya Aayaa ijasa samaya vah daOD, rha qaa. mohan us samay a:ya: jis samay vah d�r� raha: tha:.Mohan at that time came when he run-prog was Mohan came at the time when he was running.

The participle forms can be reduplicated as in (8b).

8b. maaohna daOD,ta - daOD,ta Aayaa. mohan d�r�ta: - d�r�ta: a:ya:. Mohan run-ptc run-ptc came

Mohan came running.

(c) Infinitival construction

A verbal noun followed by phlao pahle �before�, baad maoM ba:d m� �after�,or pr par �on� results in a time adverbial.

9. ]sako Aanao sao phlao kao[- nahIM Aaegaa. uske a:ne se pahle koi: nah�: a:yega:.he-gen-obl come-inf-obl before none neg come-fut No one will come before he comes.

10. ]sako jaanao ko baad maOM jaa}Ðgaa. uske ja:ne ke ba:d m�� ja:�:ga:.he-gen-obl go-inf-obl after I go-fut I�ll go after his departure.

11. ]sako Aanao pr saaro KuSa hue. uske a:ne par sa:re khu� hue. he-gen-obl come-inf-obl on all happy becameAll were happy on his coming. Manner Clauses

Manner clauses also employ relative-like and participial constructions. They are not expressed by infinitival or gerundive constructions. The relative clause-like manner markers jaOsao vaOsao j�se - v�se �as/which way� indicates the manner reading.

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12. jaOsao maOM khUÐgaa vaOsao hI krao. j�se m�� kah�:ga: v�se hi: karo. as-rel I tell-you the same way-cor emp do Do as I tell you.

The word order of the relative manner clause and correlative manner clause can be altered.

12a. vaOsao krao jaOsao maOM khUÐgaa.v�se karo j�se m�� kah�:ga:

The following participial constructions express manner rather than tme.

13. vah raoto - raoto Aayaa.vah rote - rote a:ya:. he weep-ptc weep-ptc came He came (while) crying.

14. vah fSa- pr baOzkr raoyaa.vah fara� par b�t �hkar roya:. he floor on sit-cp wept He cried sitting on the floor.

15. vah Sarart ko saaqa baaolaa.vah �ara:rat ke sa:th bola:. he anger-gen with said He said with anger.

The negativized participial form is formed by adding -e ibanaa -e bina:.

16. vah hÐsao ibanaa baaolaa.vah hãse bina: bola:.he laugh-obl without saidHe said without laughing.

Infinitival constructions also express manner.

17. ]saka naacanaa mauJao psaMd hO.uska: na:cna: mujhe pasand h�. (s)he-gen dance-inf me-dat like is I like his/her manner of dancing.

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17a. ]sako naacanao ka trIka mauJao psaMd hO.uske na:cne ka: tari:ka: mujhe pasand h�. (s)he-gen-obl dance-inf-gen manner I-dat like is I like his/her manner of dancing. Purpose Clauses

Purpose clauses are formed in two ways: (a) infinitival formfollowed by e e or the oblique form plus the postposition ko ilae ke liye �for�, and (b) the @yaaoMik kyõki �because/ as� clause modifying [sa ilae is liye �therefore�.

18. vah naaTk doKnao gayaa.vah na:t�ak dekhne gaya:.he play see-inf-obl for He went to see a play.

18a. vah naaTk doKnao ko ilae gayaa.vah na:t�ak dekhne ke liye gaya:. he play see-inf-obl for went He went to see a play.

Notice that in (18) the oblique case marker e is added to theinfinitive form of the verb, which expresses the meaning for. In (18a), the oblique case marker -e -e is added before the postpositionko ilae ke liye �for�. In the above construction, there is an option between the two alternatives. If the verb is not a motion verb the oblique form and postposition must be used.

19. maOMnao ]sao iktaba pZ,nao ko ilae kha.m��ne use kita:b par�hne ke liye kaha:. I-erg he-dat book read-inf-obl for saidI told him to read the book.

19a. *maOMnao ]sao iktaba pZ,nao kha.*m��ne use kita:b par�hne kaha:.

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The co-referential phrases kyõki because and is liye �therefore� can also be used.

20. @yaaoMik Aaja gamaI- qaI [sailae maOM baaja,ar nahIM gayaa.kyõki a:j garmi: thi: isliye m�� ba:za:r nah�: gaya:. because today hot was therefore I market neg went Because it was hot, I didnt go to market.

The elements of co-referential phrases @yaaoMik kyõki and [sailae is liyecan be deleted. The word order undergoes a change as in (20a) and (20b) below.

20a. Aaja gamaI- qaI [sailae maOM baaja,ar nahIM gayaa. a:j garmi: thi: isliye m�� ba:za:r nah�: gaya:. Today hot was therefore ar nahIM I market neg go-past It was hot, therefore, I couldnt go to market.

20b. @yaaoMik Aaja gamaI- qaI maOM baaja,ar nahIM gayaa.kyõki a:j garmi: thi: m�� ba:za:r nah�: gaya:. because today hot was I market neg go-past Because it was hot, I didnt go to market. Cause Clauses

Cause is expressed by using these constructions: (a) finite clausesmarked by @yaaoMik kyõki �because�, (b) participles, and (c) infinitival plus sao se from.

(a) Finite clauses

21. vah pZ, nahIM sakta @yaaoMik vah AnapZ, hO. vah par�h nah�: sakta: kyõki vah anpar�h h�. he read not able because he illiterate is He cannot read because he is illiterate.

21a. @yaaoMik vah AnapZ, hO vah pZ, nahIM sakta.kyõki vah anpar�h h�, vah par�h nah�: sakta:. Because he is illiterate, he cannot read.

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(b) Participles

22. calato calato vah qaka AaOr baOz gayaa. calte calte vah thaka: �r b�t�h gaya:.walk-ptc he tired and sat aux Because of walking (constantly), he was tired and sat down.

23. maOM p`tIxaa krto krto qak gayaa.m�� prati:k�a: karte karte thak gaya:. I wait do-ptc tired aux I got tired of waiting.

The cause is expressed in (22) and (23) by reduplicated present and past participles respectively. Cause can be expressed by other participles, too.

24. AiQak Saraba pIkr vah baImaar huAa.adhik �ara:b pi:kar vah bi:ma:r hua:.more liquor drink-cp he sick was Because he drank a lot (of liquor), he was sick.

25. dvaa[- Kato hI vah zIk huAa.dava:i: kha:te hi: vah t�hi:kh hua:.medicine eat-ptc emp he alright becameImmediately upon taking the medicine, he recovered (from illness).

(c) Infinitive plus se with

26. baccao ko Aanao sao saBaI KuSa hue.bacce ke a:ne se sabhi: khu� hue. child-obl-gen come-inf-obl with all happy were Because of the arrival of the child, all were happy. Condition Clauses

Condition clauses are marked by the conjunction agar/yadi �if�.

27. Agar/yaid vah baaja,ar jaaegaa ifr maOM nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.agar/yadi vah ba:za:r ja:yega:, phir m�� nah�: ja:�:ga:. if he market go-fut-ms then I neg go-fut.1s If he goes to market, (then) I won�t go.

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28. Agar/yaid baairSa haogaI ifr AcCI f,sala haogaI. agar/yadi ba:ri� hogi:, phir acchi: fasal hogi:.if rain fall-fut then good crop be-futIf it rains, then the crops will be good.

The sequence of if - then clause can be reversed.

27a. ifr maOM baaja,ar nahIM jaa}Ðgaa Agar vah jaaegaa.phir m�� ba:za:r nah�: ja:�:ga: agar vah ja:yega:. again I market neg go-fut if he go-futI will not go to the market if he goes.

28a. ifr AcCI fsala haogaI Agar baairSa haogaI.phir acchi: fasl hogi: agar ba:ri� hogi:.again good harvest will if rain comes The crop will be good if it rains.

It is to be noted that the condition marker Agar agar is not deleted, whereas its co-referential marker ifr phir can be deleted. The conjunction marker vana-a varna: �otherwise� also is used in condition clauses.

29. kla jaldI Aa jaanaa vana-a maOM Akolao jaa}Ðgaa.kal jaldi: a: ja:na: varna: m�� akele: ja:�:ga:.tomorrow soon come otherwise I alone-obl go-futCome early tomorrow, otherwise I will go alone.

The same tense reference is marked in both constituents conjoined by the markers Agar agar and vanaa- varna:. Concession Clauses

A concession clause is marked by subordinate conjunction markers such as yaQyaip yadhypi/ halaaMik ha:lã:ki/ caaho ca:he �although�, Agar - ifr BaI agar - phir bhi: �even if�, and @yaaoM nahIM kyõ nah�: �why not�.

30. yaQyaip/ halaMik vah bahut AmaIr hO ifr BaI vah kMjaUsa hO. yadhypi/ha:lã:ki vah bahut ami:r h� phir bhi: vah kanju:s h�. although he very rich is still he miser is Although he is very rich, he is a miser.

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31. caaho Aap ]sakao pITaogao BaI vah yah kama nahIM a:p usko pi:t�oge bhi:, vah yah ka:m nah�: karega:. even if you he-dat beat-fut too he this work not do-futEven if you beat him/her up, he/she won�t do this work.

31a. caaho Aap ]sakao pITaogao BaI vah ifr BaI yah kama ca:he a:p usko pi:t�oge bhi:, vah phir bhi: yah ka:m even if you he-dat beat-fut too even then this work nahIM krogaa.nah�: karega:.

not do-futEven if you�ll beat him/her up, even then he/she won�t do thiswork.

32. vah @yaaoM na kafI AnauraoQa kro ifr BaI maOM ]sako saaqa vah kyõ na ka:phi: anurodh kare phir bhi: m�� uske sa:th he why do much insist do even then I he-gen with idllaI nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.dilli: nah�: ja:�:ga:.Delhi not go-fut Even if he insists, I�ll not go to Delhi with him. Result Clauses

In result clauses, the main clause contains a cause marked by an oblique infinitive followed by the postposition ko karNa ke ka:ran � / kI vajah ki: vajah �because of the reason�. This expresses the result of a sentence. In a sentence sequence, the cause is usually given in the first sentence, followed by another sentence giving the result of it. The second sentence usually contains the phrase [sa ilae is liye�therefore�.

33. baairSa haonao ko karNa / kI vajah sao maOM baaja,ar na jaa� hone ke ka:ran �/ki: vajah m�� ba:za:r na ja: saka:. rain fall-inf-obl reason I market neg go able I could not go to market because of the rain.

34. kla AcCa maaOsama qaa [sailae maOM GaUmanao gayaa.kal accha: m�sam tha: isliye m�� ghu:mne gaya:.yesterday good weather was therefore I walk-inf-obl went-1s The weather was good yesterday, therefore, I went for a walk.

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4.3. Sentence Construction

Here we will discuss the different types of sentence constructions: copular, verbal, negation, interrogatives, imperatives, anaphora, reflexives, reciprocals, equatives, comparison, superlatives, and coordination.

4.3.1. Copular Sentences

The verb haonaa hona: �to be� is employed in copular sentences. The copula may take a predicate noun, predicate adjective, participle, ora predicate adverb as a complement.

Predicate noun 1. vah vakIla hO.

vah vaki:l h�. he lawyer is He is a lawyer.

Predicate adjective2. sauYamaa laMbaI hO.

su�ma: lambi: h�. Sushma tall is Sushma is tall.

Predicate adverbial (participle) 3. maaohna KD,a hO.

mohan khar�a: h�. Mohan stand is

Mohan is standing.

Predicate adverbial 4. ]sakI Aavaaja, maIzI hO.

uski: a:va:z mi:t�hi: h�. his/her voice sweet isHis/her voice is sweet.

The unmarked order of constituents in the examples given above is subject - complement - copula.

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There are two types of predicate adjectival copular sentences: (a) those which change for gender and number of the nouns they modifyand (b) those which do not. The adjective laMbaa lamba: �tall� falls into the first category, and the adjective safod safed �white� falls into the second.

5. yah laMbaa laD,ka hO. yah lamba: lar�ka: h�. this tall boy isThis is a tall boy.

5a. yao laMbao laD,ko lambe lar�ke h��.these tall boys are These are tall boys.

5b. yah laMMbaI laD,kI hO. yeh lambi: lar�ki: h�. this tall girl isThis is a tall girl.

5c. yao laMMbaI laD,ikyaaÐ hOM. ye lambi: lar�kiyã: h��. these tall girls areThese are tall girls.

6. yah safod fUla hO. yeh safed phu:l h�. this white flower is This is a white flower.

6a. yao safod fUla hOM. ye safed phu:l h��.these white flowers areThese are white flowers.

6b. yah safod kmaIja, hO. yeh safed kami:z h�. this white shirt is This is a white shirt.

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6c. yao safod kmaIjaoM, hOM. ye safed kami:z� h��.these white shirts areThese are white shirts.

The copular verb must be retained in both affirmative (positive) as well as negative sentences. In the case of co-ordinate structures, it isoptionally deleted.

7. maaohna Da^@Tr hO.mohan d�a:kt �ar h�. Mohan doctor is Mohan is a doctor.

8. saaohna vakIla nahIM hO.sohan vaki:l nah�: h�. Sohan lawyer not isSohan is not a lawyer.

9. maaohna AaOr AjaIt Da^@Tr hOM.mohan aur aji:t d�a:kt �ar h��.Mohan and Ajit doctors are Mohan and Ajit are doctors.

9a. maaohna Da^@Tr hO AaOr AjaIt BaI.mohan d�a:kt �ar h� �r aji:t bhi:. Mohan doctor is and Ajit too Mohan is a doctor and so is Ajit.

9b. na maaohna vakIla hO AaOr na mohan vaki:l h� �r na aji:t. neg Mohan lawyer is and neg Ajit Neither Mohan nor Ajit is a lawyer.

The copular verb is used for definition, identity, existence, and role functions. It is also used as a second member (explicator) in the compound verb sequences.

10. Aajakla saUya- jaldI caZ,ta hO.a:jkal su:rya jaldi: car�hta: h�. nowadays sun quick rise-ptc is The sun rises early these days.

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11. idna p`it idna halaat sauQar rho hOM.din prati din ha:la:t sudhar rahe h��.day after day situation improve-prog areThe situation is improving day by day.

12. Aajakla jaldI AMQaora haota hO.a:jkal jaldi: andhera: hota: h�. nowadays early dark be-ptc is It becomes dark early (in the evening) these days.

13. [-Svar hO. i:�var h�.

God is

14. Bagavaana Apnaa Apnaa hO.bha:gya apna: apna: h�. luck self self is One is born with his/her own luck.

15. sa%ya iCpta nahIM.satya chipta: nah�:.

truth hidden neg The truth (eventually) comes out. Or The truth cannot be hidden.

16. samaya balavaana hO.samay balva:n h�.time strong is Time is strong.

The copular verb always takes a complement. In sentence (13) the complement does not appear at the surface and is understood asivaQyamaana vidhyma:n/ maaOjaUd m�ju:d �exists/omnipresent� and/or hr sqaana har stha:n/ kNa kNa maoM kan � kan � m� �everywhere�.

16a. [-Svar ivaQyamaana/maaOjaUd /hr sqaana pr/ kNa kNa maoM hO.i:�var vidhyma:n/mauju:d /har stha:n par/kan� kan� m� h�. God present/every where particles in is

God exists. Or God is present everywhere.

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In Hindi the copula verb haonaa hona: �to be� is used as a non-stative verb and is translated as to become/happen/take/occur. This meaning is expressed by using the verb haonaa hona: or hao jaanaa ho ja:na: �tobecome�.

17. dor hu[- /hao ga[-.der hui:/ho gai:.late be-pst-fs/be aux-fs It became late.

18. baatcaIt hu[ hui:.

conversation be-pst-fs The conversation took place.

19. kama huAa.ka:m hua:.

work be-pst-ms The work was done.

4.3.2. Verbal Sentences

Verbal phrases can be grouped into three categories based on theclassification of their verbs as simple, conjunct, or compound. The first category has only one verbal root as in (1).

1. maOMnao iktaba pZ,I. m��ne kita:b par�hi:.I-erg book read I read a book.

The second category is formed by combining a noun/adjective plus the verb krnaa karna: �to do�, or haonaa hona: �to be�. (i.e. kama krnaa ka:mkarna: �to work�, maohnat krnaa mehnat karna: �to work hard�, saaf haonaasa:ph hona: �to be clear� takt haonaa ta:kat hona: �to be strong/healthy�.)

2. mauJaoo kama krnaa hO. mujhe ka:m karna: h�. I-dat work do-inf be I have to work.

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3. yah maamalaa saaf hO. yeh ma:mla: sa:f h�. this matter clear is This matter is clear. or It is clear.

4. ]sanao maohnat kI. usne mehnat ki:. he-erg hard work did He worked hard.

5. ]samaoM takt hO. usm� ta:kat h�. he-obl-loc strength be (S)he is strong/healthy. or (S)he has strength.

The third category employs a sequence of verbs like pZ, laonaa par�h lena: �to read�, and ilaK donaa likh dena: �to write�.

6. ]sanao AKbaar pZ, ilayaa. usne axba:r par�h liya:.he-erg newspaper read took-explicator-ms He read the newspaper.

7. maOMnao icaT\zI ilaK dI. m��ne cit�t�hi: likh di:.I-erg letter write gave-explicator-fs I wrote the letter.

The subject of a transitive verb in the past tense is in the oblique case, followed by the case sign or the postposition nao ne.

8. laD,ko nao laoK ilaKa.lar�ke ne lekh likha:. boy-erg essay-ms wrote-msThe boy wrote an essay.

9. laD,kI nao p~ ilaKa.lar�ki: ne patr likha:.girl-erg letter-ms wrote-ms The girl wrote a letter.

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10. laD,kaoM/laD,ikyaaoM nao AKbaar pZ,a. lar�kõ/lar�kiyõ ne axba:r par�ha:.boys-/girls-erg newspaper read The boys/girls read the newspaper.

11. maOMnao/hmanao iflma doKI.m��ne/hamne film dekhi:. I-erg/we-erg film-fs saw-fs I/we saw a film.

12. tUnaoo/tumanaooo/Aapnaoo iktaba pZ,I. tu:ne/tumne/a:pne kita:b par� book-fs read-fs You read a book.

13. tumanaooo/Aapnaoo kusaI- doKI.tumne/a:pne kursi: dekhi:. you-erg chair saw-fs You saw a chair.

The plural forms of personal pronouns are used as honorific singular/plural subjects as well.

Psychological predicates such as gaussaa Aanaa gussa: a:na: �to be angry or irritated�, and laganaa lagna: �seem� always take a dative subject using a dative case marker and the postposition kao ko.

14. laD,ko kao gaussaa Aayaa.lar�ke ko gussa: a:ya:. boy-obl to anger came The boy was angry.

15. ]sao caaoT lagaI.use cot � lagi:.

he-dat injury struck He got injured. Direct Object

Verbs are conventionally divided into intransitive and transitive on the basis of whether they take a noun phrase as an object. Transitive

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verbs take noun phrases as their object and intransitive verbs do not. In certain cases, the objects are understood and they do not appear at the surface level. For example, see the use of the transitive verbs khnaa kahna: �to say� and pUCnaa pu:chna: �to ask� in sentences (16) and (17) below.

16. maOMnao khI. m��ne kahi:.

I-erg said-fs I said (it) to him/her.

17. ]sanao pUCa. usne pu:cha:.

he-erg asked-fs He asked (it to) him/her.

In (16), the verb khnaa kahna: is inflected for an implied generic feminine object. Similarly, in (17), the verb pUCnaa pu:chna: is inflected for an implied generic masculine object. These sentencescan be completed as follows.

16a. maOMnao ]sasao ApnaI baat khI.m��ne usse apni: ba:t kahi:. I-erg him/her selfs matter-fs told-fs I told him/her my story.

17a. ]sanao halacaala pUCa.usne ha:lca:l pu:cha:.he/she-erg welfare-ms asked-msHe/she asked (him/her) welfare. Indirect Object

Whenever direct and indirect objects occur in a sentence, the indirect object receives the dative case markings. The order of the direct and indirect object in a sentence mainly depends on the emphasis given to these constituents in a given sentence. When animate indirect objects precede direct objects, they get extraemphasis. Notice the following examples of sentences using indirect objects in the dative case.

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18. maOMnao AjaIt kao iktaba dI.m��ne aji:t ko kita:b di:. I-erg Ajit-dat book-fs gave-fs I gave Ajit a book.

18a. maOMnao iktaba AjaIt kao dI.m��ne kita:b aji:t ko di:.

19. AjaIt nao ApnaI p%naI ko ilae Saala K,rIda.aji:t ne apni: patni: ke liye �a:l xari:da:.Ajit-erg selfs wife for shawl boughtAjit bought his wife a shawl.

19a. AjaIt nao Saala ApnaI p%naI ko ilae K,rIda.aji:t ne �a:l apni: patni: ke liye xari:da:. Ajit-erg shawl selfs wife for boughtAjit bought a shawl for his wife.

20. ]maa nao mauJao Kanaa iKlaayaa.uma: ne mujhe kha:na: khila:ya:. Uma-erg I-obl food feed-fs Uma offered the food to me.

20a. mauJao ]maa nao Kanaa iKlaayaa.mujhe uma ne kha:na: khila:ya:. I-obl Uma-erg food feed-fs Uma offered the food to me.

In (18), (19) and (20) the indirect objects receive more emphasisthan in (18a), (19a) and (20a). Other Types of Verb Argument

Other types of verb arguments appear in the form of variouspostpositional phrases. They include locatives, instruments, benefactives, and comitatives.

There are no restrictions regarding the number of arguments(subject, direct/indirect object, and optional arguments) put together in a sentence. There are, of course, certain semantic restrictions, including the selection of their cases (nominative, dative, and ergative subjects), imposed by the choice of verbs and tense.

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In Hindi, the verb occurs in the final position. The unmarked word order is subject, indirect object, direct object, adverbial (time,locative), and verb. The direct object may occur before the indirectobject depending on the emphasis given to it. Consider sentences (21)- (21c) below.

21. maaohna nao pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae kla Gar pr iktaba dI.mohan ne pi:t�ar ko aji:t ke liye kal ghar par kita:b di:.Mohan-erg Peter to Ajit for yesterday home at book gave Mohan gave Peter a book for Ajit yesterday at home.

21a. maaohna nao AjaIt ko ilae pITr kao kla Gar pr iktaba dI.mohan ne aji:t ke liye pi:t�ar ko kal ghar par kita:b di:.

21b. maaohna nao pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae Gar pr kla iktaba dI.mohan ne pi:t�ar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kal kita:b di:.

21c. maaohna nao kla pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae Gar pr iktaba dI.mohan ne kal pi:t�ar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kita:b di:.

In sentence (21), the direct object gets more emphasis than theindirect object. The order of emphasis is reversed in sentence (21a). Similarly, the adverbial phrase can also precede the direct or indirect object for emphasis.

4.3.3. Negation Sentential Negation

Sentential negation is expressed by the negative particles nahIM nah�:not, mat mat don�t, and na na no. The negative particle nahIM nah�: is added before the main verb, which may or may not be followed byan auxiliary verb.

1. vah Aajakla dF,tr nahIM jaata hO.vah a:jkal daftar nah�: ja:ta: h�. he nowadays office neg go-ptc is He doesn�t go to the office nowadays.

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2. maOMnao yah iktaba nahIM pZ,I (hO).m��ne yeh kita:b nah�: par�hi: (h�). I-erg this book neg read (have) I have not read this book.

The particle mat mat �don�t� is used with imperative constructions. Itis added in the preverbal position.

3. AKbaar mat pZ,ao.axba:r mat par�ho.newspaper neg read Don�t read the newspaper.

4. Aaja Gar mat jaa[e.a:j ghar mat ja:iye. today home neg go-plPlease don�t go home today.

The negative particle mat mat can be replaced by na na �no�, but it is not used frequently.

3a. AKbaar na pZ,ao.axba:r na par�ho.Don�t read the newspaper.

4a. Aaja Gar na jaa[e.a:j ghar na ja:iye. Please don�t go home today. Constituent Negation

A number of devices are employed to mark constituent negation. The main constituents are the stress and the use of a negative particle after the negated constituent. Sometimes stress is used tonegate the constituent.

5. ]sao kla p%naI sao laD,naa nahIM caaihe qaa.use kal patni: se lar �na: nah�: ca:hiye tha:. he-dat yesterday wife with quarrel neg should was He should not have quarreled with his wife yesterday.

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6. ]sao hr raoja, Saraba nahIM pInaI caaihe.use har roz �ara:b nah�: pi:ni: ca:hiye. he every day liquor neg drink shouldHe should not drink (liquor) daily.

In sentences (5) and (6), the negated constituents are stressed by stressing the adverbs.

The negative marker follows the negated constituent.

7. vah Gar nahIM gayaa vah Asptala gayaa.vah ghar nah�: gaya:, vah aspata:l gaya:. he home neg went he hospital went He did not go home; he went to the hospital.

7a. vah Gar nahIM gayaa Asptala gayaa.vah ghar nah�: gaya:, aspata:l gaya:.

The negative constituent is also expressed by the use of the negative markers isavaa siva: except and ibanaa bina: without added after the main verbs as given below.

8. vah Kanaa Kae ibanaa kalaoja gayaa.vah kha:na: kha:ye bina: ka:lej gaya:.he food eat without college went He went to college without eating.

9. ]maa ko isavaa saaro samaya pr Aae.uma: ke siva: sa:re samay par a:ye. Uma gen without all time on came All came on time except Uma.

In sentences (7) and (8), the negative markers cannot be replaced bynahIM nah�:.

The indefinite markers kao[- koi: �someone� and kuC kuch �something� and the question words khIM BaI kah�: bhi: �anywhere� and kBaI BaI kabhi: bhi: �ever� are also used with negative constituents.

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10. kao[- laD,ka skUla nahIM gayaa.koi: lar�ka: sku:l nah�: gaya:. someone student school neg went No child went to school.

11. [tnao pOsao sao kuC nahIM haogaa.itne p�se se kuch nah�: hoga:. this-obl money with something neg be-fut This money is not sufficient.

12. ]sanao kla sao kao[- kama nahIM ikyaa.usne kal se koi: ka:m nah�: kiya:. he-erg yesterday from any work neg didHe has done no work since yesterday.

13. Aimat khIM nahIM gayaa.amit kah�: nah�: gaya:.Amit anywhere neg went Amit went nowhere.

14. yah kama kBaI BaI vyaqa- nahIM haogaa.yeh ka:m kabhi: bhi: vyarth nah�: hoga:. this work ever waste neg be-fut This work will never go waste.

Participles are also used along with negated constituents.

15. Aimat daOD,to - daOD,to nahIM Aayaa.amit d�r�te - d�r�te nah�: a:ya:. Amit run-ptc neg cameAmit did not come running.

The negative prefixes be- and an-, borrowed from Persian (morphological negation) negate the constituent to which they are prefixed.

16. vah baorhma hO.vah beraham h�. he without-mercy is

He is merciless.

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17. vah baoidla kama krta hO.vah bedil ka:m karta: h�. he without-heart work do-ptc is He works uninterestingly. Double/Multiple Negation

Hindi allows only one negative particle per clause. Double ormultiple negation markers are not used.

18. maOM hOdrabaad nahIM gayaa hUÐ.m�� h�dara:ba:d nah�: gaya: h�:. I Hyderabad neg went be I have not gone to Hyderabad.

It is, however, possible to use double negation markers for emphasis.

19. maOM maaskao nahIM na gayaa hUÐ.m�� ma:sko nah�: na gaya: h�:. I Moscow neg neg went beHave I ever gone to Moscow? Or I have never gone to Moscow. Negation and Coordination

Negation occurs in coordinate structures as it does in simple sentences. The negative element is not moved to the co-ordinate position unless the identical element is deleted from the second negative conjunct. It is only in the na na � na na �neither � nor� situation that negative elements are used sentence initially.

20. na Aimat naaOkrI krta hO AaOr na amit n�kri: karta: h� �r na karoba:r.neg Amit service do-prt is and neg business Amit has neither a job nor a business.

20a. Aimat naaOkrI nahIM krta hO.amit n�kri: nah�: karta: h�. Amit job neg do-pr isAmit is not doing a job.

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20b. Aimat karaobaar nahIM krta hO.amit ka:roba:r nah�: karta: h�. Amit business neg do-ptc isAmit is not doing a business. Negation and Subordination

With predicates expressing opinion (pta haonaa pata: hona: �to know�,expectation/ intention (caahnaa ca:hna: �to want�), or perception (laganaalagna: �to seem� and ivacaar haonaa vica:r hona: �to have an opinion/to think�), the matrix verb can be negated to express subordinate negation.

21. mauJao pta hO ik vah nahIM Aaegaa. mujhe pata: h� ki vah nah�: a:yega:.I-obl know is that he neg come-fut I know that he will not come.

22. mauJao lagata hO ik Aaja baairSa nahIM haogaI. mujhe lagta: h� ki a:j ba:ri� nah�: hogi:. I-dat seem-ptc is that today rain neg be-fut It seems to me that it won�t rain today.

23. maOM caahta hUРik vah karaobaar nahIM kro. m�� ca:hta: h�: ki vah karoba:r nah�: kare. I want-ptc am that he business neg do-subjunctiveI don�t want him to do business.

24. maora ivacaar hO ik ]sao vah naaOkrI nahIM krnaI caaihe. mera: vica:r h� ki use vah n�kri: nah�: karni: ca:hiye. my opinion is that he-obl this job neg do-inf shouldIn my opinion, he should not take this job.

The negative particle nahIM nah�: can occur before the modal verbs ptahaonaa pata: hona:, laganaa lagna: and caahnaa ca:hna: but not before ivacaar haonaavica:r hona:. Thus, sentences (21-23) can be rephrased as (21a-23a) but not as (24a).

21a. mauJao nahIM pta ik vah Aaegaa (ik nahIM). mujhe nah�: pata: ki vah a:yega: (ki nah�:).

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22a. mauJao nahIM lagata hO ik Aaja baairSa haogaI.mujhe nah�: lagta: h� ki a:j ba:ri� hogi:.

23a. maOM nahIM caahta ik vah karaobaar kro.m�� nah�: cahta: ki vah ka:roba:r kare.

24a. *mauJao nahIM ivacaar hO ik*mujhe nah�: vica:r h� ki.

4.3.4. Interrogative

There are two types of interrogative sentences: yes-no questions and information questions using question-words. These questions are marked by certain intonation characteristics. Yes-No Questions

On the basis of the expected answer, yes-no questions can be put into two categories: (a) neutral yes-no questions (where a definite answer is not expected) and (b) leading yes-no questions (whereeither an affirmative or a negative answer is expected). Neutral Yes-No Questions

Neutral yes-no questions are formed by the optional placement ofthe question word @yaa kya: what in the sentence initial position of a declarative sentence. Note that the use of the question marker @yaa kya: in neutral questions is different from its use in the question-word questions. In question-word questions, @yaa kya: usually occurs in the second position, and in yes-no questions it occurs only in the initial position.

1. tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao.tum kal dilli: ja:oge. you tomorrow Delhi go-fut tomorrow You will go to Delhi tomorrow.

1a. (@yaa) tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao? (kya:) tum kal dilli: ja:oge? (Q-word) you tomorrow Delhi goWill you go to Delhi tomorrow?

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1b. tuma @yaa kla idllaI jaaAaogao? tum kya: kal dilli: ja:oge?

A declarative sentence can be converted to a neutral yes-no question without adding any question marker by raising the intonation at the end of the verb.

A negative declarative sentence is changed to a yes-no question by adding the negative morpheme before the verb.

2. tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao.tum kal dilli: nah�: ja:oge. you tomorrow Delhi neg go-futYou won�t go to Delhi tomorrow.

2a. (@yaa) tuma kla idllaI nahIM jaaAaogao? (kya:) tum kal dilli: nah�: ja:oge? (Q) you tomorrow Delhi neg go-futWon�t you go to Delhi tomorrow?

2b. tuma @yaa kla idllaI nahIM jaaAaogao? tum kya: kal dilli nah�: ja:oge?Aren�t you going to Delhi tomorrow?

A negativized yes-no question invokes multiple answers. Consider the answers to questions (3) and (4):

3. tuma yah if,lma nahIM doKaoogao? tum yah film nah�: dekhoge? you this picture neg watch-fut Won�t you watch this film?

3a. haи maOM doKUÐgaa (yah if,lma).hã:, m�� dekh�:ga: (yeh film). yes I watch-1s-fut (this film). Yes, I�ll see (this film).

3b. nahIM¸ maOM doKUÐgaa nahIM (yah if,lma).nah�:, m�� dekh�:ga: nah�: (yeh film). neg I see-fut neg (this film) No, I won�t watch (this film).

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3c. haи maOM doKUÐMgaa nahIM.hã:, m�� dekh�:ga: nah�:. yes, I watch-1s-fut negYes, I won�t watch.

3d. nahIM¸ maOM doKUÐMgaa.nah�:, m�� dekh�:ga:.neg I watch-fut No, I�ll watch.

4. Aaja sadI- hO naa? a:j sardi: h� na:?today cold is neg-Q Isn�t it cold today?

4a. haи Aaja sadI- hO.hã:, a:j sardi: h�. yes today cold is Yes, it is cold today.

4b. nahIM¸ Aaja sadI- nahIM hO.nah�:, a:j sardi: nah�: h�. Neg today cold neg isNo, it isn�t cold today.

4c. haÐ Aaja sadI- nahIM hO.hã:, a:j sardi: nah�: h�. yes today cold neg isYes, it isn�t cold today.

4d. nahI¸M Aaja sadI- nahIM hO.nah�:, a:j sardi: nah�: h�. neg today cold neg isNo, it isn�t cold today.

In these examples, the (a-b) answers indicate positive-negative and the (c-d) indicate agreement-disagreement answering systems. Theagreement-disagreement answering systems are less frequently used than the positive-negative ones.

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225 Leading Questions

Leading questions are formed by adding the repetitive form of the verb negative or positive question markers nahIM nah�: and haÐ hã:respectively at the end of a declarative sentence to serve as tag questions. The tag question comprising of the verb + naa na: is preceded by a positive proposition and the tag question of the verb + haÐ hã: is preceded by the negative proposition.

The expectation of a positive answer is expressed by an affirmative proposition preceding the verb + naa na: as a tag question.

5. Aaja gamaI- hO, hO naa? a:j garmi: h�, h� na:?today hot is is neg-q It is hot today, isn�t it?

6. vah iktaba pZ,ogaa, pZ,ogaa naa? vah kita:b par�hega:, par�hega: na:?he book read-3s-fut read-3s-fut neg-qHe will read a letter, won�t he?

The expectation of a negative answer is expressed by a negative proposition preceding the verb + naa na: or the repetition of the verbform as a tag question.

7. Aaja gamaI- nahIM hO, naa? a:j garmi: nah�: h�, na:? today hot neg is neg-qIt isn�t hot today, is it?

8. vah p~ nahIM pZ,ogaa, pZ,ogaa? vah patr nah�: par�hega:, par�hega:?he letter neg read-3s-fut read-3s-fut-q He won�t read a letter, will he?

Note that the occurrence of certain negative polarity markers such asphlao pahle, qaaoD,o thor�e �ever� in the interrogative sentence also invoke a negative answer.

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9. vah phlao/qaaoD,o kama krta hO? vah pahle/thor�e ka:m karta: h�? he ever work is Does he ever work?

Alternative questions are formed by adding the expression ik nahIM ki nah�: �or not� at the end of an interrogative yes-no question.

10. tuma p~ ilaKaogao ik nahIM? tum patr likhoge ki nah�:? you letter write-3s or notWill you write a letter or not?

An alternative form of this question will be:

10a. tuma p~ ilaKaogao ik nahIM ilaKaogao? tum patr likhoge ki nah�: likhoge?you letter write-fut or neg write-fut Will you write the letter or not? Question-Word Questions

Interrogative sentences with wh- question words are referred to as k- k-questions in Hindi because question words begin with the k- k- sound. Question words always occur in the second position of interrogative sentences. The main question words are @yaa kya: what, kaOna k�n �who�, khaÐ kahã: �where�, kOsaa k�sa: how, @yaaoM kyõ �why�, iktnaa

kitna: �how much�, kba kab �when� and ikQar kidhar �in whatdirection�. The question word is always stressed.

11. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h�? this what is What is this?

12. maaohna khaÐ hO? mohan kahã: h�? Mohan where is Where is Mohan?

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13. tuma @yaaoM Aae? tum kyõ a:ye? you why come-2pl Why did you come?

14. tuma kba AaAaogao? tum kab a:oge? you when come-2s-fut When will you come?

15. vah ikQar jaaegaa? vah kidhar ja:yega:? he where go-3s-fut Where will he go?

The question words kOsaa kaisa: and iktnaa kitna: agree with thefollowing or preceding noun in number and gender. They have thefollowing three forms.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg / PlkOsaa k�sa: kOsao k�se kOsaI k�si: how

iktnaa kitna: iktnao kitne iktnaI kitni: how much

16. yah laD,ka kOsaa hO? yeh lar�ka: k�sa: h�? this boy how is How is this boy?

17. yao laD,ko kOsao hOM? ye lar�ke k�se h��? these boys how areHow are these boys?

18. yah GaD,I kOsaI hO? yeh ghar�i: k�si: h�? this watch-f how is How is this watch?

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19. yao GaiD,yaaÐ kOsaI hOM? ye ghar�iyã: k�si: h��? these watches how are How are these watches?

20. yah pula iktnaa laMbaa hO? yeh pul kitna: lamba: h�? this bridge how much long is How long is this bridge?

21. yao iktnao baccao hOM? ye kitne bacce h��? these how many children are How many children are there?

22. vah iktnaI baD,I iktaba hO? vah kitni: bar�i: kita:b h�? that how big-fs book-f isHow big is that book?

23. vao kuisa-yaaÐ iktnaI CaoTI hOM? ve kursiyã: kitni: chot�i: h��? those chairs how small areHow small are those chairs?

The question words @yaa kya: what and kaOna k�n who have the obliqueforms iksa kis (Sg) and ikna kin (Pl) which are followed by casesuffixes and postpositions. The oblique forms of postpositions areinflected for number as follows.

Masculine/Feminine Sg Pl iksao kise iknhoM kinh� to what/whom iksa kao kis ko ikna kao kin ko to whom iksa sao kis se ikna sao kin se by what/whomiksa nao kis ne iknahaoMnao kinhõne who iksa ko saaqa kis ke sa:th ikna ko saaqa kin ke sa:th with whom iksa pr kis par ikna pr kin par oniksa ka kis ka: ikna ka kin ka: whose

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24. yah iktaba iksao/iksa kao donaI hO? yeh kita:b kise/kis ko deni: h�? this book who give-inf-f aux To whom is this book to be given? OrWho is this book to be given to?

25. iksa laD,koo/laD,kI kao jaanaa hO? kis lar�ke/lar�ki: ko jana: h�? who-obl boy-dat/girl-dat go-Inf aux Which boy/girl has to go?

26. ikna laD,kaoMoo/laDi,kyaaoM kao Aanaa hO? kin lar�kõ/lar�kiyõ ko a:na: h�? boys-dat/girls-dat come-inf is Which boys/girls have to come?

27. vah iksa Sahr/ikna SahraoM sao Aaegaa? vah kis �ahar/kin �ahrõ se a:yega:?he which-abl city-abl/cities-abl from come-3s-futWhich city/cities will he come from?

28. yah iksanao /iknhaoMnao saoba Kayaa? yeh kisne/kinhõne seb kha:ya:? this who-erg-ms/-fs/-p apple ate-ms Who ate this apple?

29. yah iksaka banaa hO? yeh kiska: bana: h�? this what-of made is What is it made of?

30. yao iksako banao hOM? ye kiske bane h��? these which-gen-ms made-mp areWhat are these made of?

31. yah iksakI banaI hOM? ye kiski: bani: h��? these which-gen-fp are Which are these made of?

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32. yah iksaka/iknaka makana hO? yeh kiska:/kinka: maka:n h�? this who-s-gen-ms/-p-gen-ms house is Whose house is this?

33. yah iksa kI/ikna kI iktaba hO? yeh kiski:/kinki: kita:b h�? this who-s-gen-fs/-p-gen-fs book is Whose book is this?

34. yao iksako/iknako pdo- hOM? ye kiske/kinke parde h��? these who-s-gen-mp/-p-gen-mp curtains areWhose curtains are these?

35. yao iksakI/iknakI kmaIja,oM hOM? ye kiski:/kinki: kami:z� h��? these who-gen-fp shirts are Whose shirts are these?

When question words are combined with postpositions they createadverbials like khaÐ sao kahã: se �in which direction�, kOsao k�se/ iksa trhkis tarah �in what manner�, and khaÐ kahã:/ khaÐ pr kahã: par�wherein�.

36. vah khaÐ jaaegaa?vah kaha�: ja:yega:. vah where go-futWhere will he go?

37. vah iksa trh Aaegaa? vah kis tarah a:yega:.he what manner come-futHow will he come?

38. Aap khaÐ sao jaaeÐgao? a:p kahã: se ja:�ge? you-p which direction go-2p-futWhere will you go from? OrIn which direction will you go?

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39. Aap kOsao AaeÐgao? a:p k�se a:�ge? you how (manner) come-2p-futHow will you come?

40. vah khaÐ (pr) baOza haogaa? vah kahã: (par) b�t �ha: hoga:? He where (at) sit-PP be-fut Where will he be sitting?

The question words are reduplicated when the expected answer provide a list (of more that one thing, person, event, etc.).Reduplication is obligatory with plural nouns.

41. Aapnao @yaa @yaa doKa? a:pne kya: kya: dekha:?you-p-erg what what saw-2p-Pa What items did you see?

42. vah khaÐ khaÐ gayaa? vah kahã: kahã: gaya:?he where where wentWhich places did he visit?

The masculine plural forms of pronouns are used for honorific singular subjects as well.

Different constituents of the main clause can be questioned as may be seen in sentence (43) below.

43. Amar nao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja, idKa[-.amar ne kal �i:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:.Amar-erg yesterday Shiela to selfs house a shirt showed-fs Amar showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday.

Subject 43a. iksanao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja, idKa[-?

kisne kal �i:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:?Who showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday?

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Direct object43b. Amar nao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar @yaa idKayaa?

amar ne kal �i:la: ko apne ghar kya: dikha:ya:?What did Amar show Shiela at his home yesterday?

Indirect object 43c. Amar nao iksakao kla Apnao Gar ek kmaIja, idKa[-?

amar ne kisko kal apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i?To whom did Amar show a shirt at his home yesterday?

Time adverbial 43d. Amar nao kba SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja, idKa[-?

amar ne kab �i:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:?When did Amar show Shiela a shirt at his home?

Location adverbial 43e. Amar nao khaÐ kla SaIlaa kao ek kmaIja, idKa[-?

amar ne kahã: kal �i:la: ko ek kami:z dikha:i:?Where did Amar show a new shirt to Shiela?

It is not possible to use simple questions word for questioning a constituent of a verb. Usually the verb phrase @yaa ikyaa kya: kiya: �do what� is used for transitive verbs and @yaa huAa kya: hua: �what happened� is used for intransitive verbs.

43f. Amar nao kla Apnao Gar @yaa ikyaa? amar ne kal apne ghar kya: kiya:? Amar-erg yesterday self-obl-home what did What did Amar do at his home yesterday?

43g. Amar ko Gar kla @yaa huAa? amar ke ghar kal kya: hua:? Amar-gen home yesterday what happened What happened at Amars house yesterday?

In non-equational copular interrogative sentences, all the elements except the verb may be questioned. In examples (44-47) the subject,the accompanier, locative, and time adverbial have been questioned. The copular verb cannot be deleted as shown in in (44a-47a).

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44. kaOna hO? k�n h�?

who is-3s Who is (there)?

44a. *kaOna? *k�n?

45. tuma iksako saaqa hao? tum kiske sa:th ho? you who-gen with are-2s Who are you with?

45a. tuma iksako saaqa? *tum kiske sa:th?

46. iktaba khaÐ hO? kita:b kahã: h�? book-fs where-abl is Where is the book?

46a. *iktaba khaÐ? *kita:b kahã:?

47. CuT\TI kba hO? chut�t �i: kab h�? holiday when is When is the holiday?

47a. *CuT\TI kba? *chut�t �i: kab?

In equational copular interrogative sentences, either the subject noun phrase or the predicate nominal can be questioned. Thedemonstrative pronoun used as a subject cannot be questioned. Consider the following examples.

48. yah pda- hO.yeh parda: h�. it curtain is It is a curtain.

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48a. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h�? it what is-3s What is it?

48b. *@yaa pda- hO? *kya: parda: h�?

49. yah iktaba hO.yeh kita:b h�. this book isThis is a book.

49a. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h�? this what is-f What is this?

49b. *@yaa iktaba hO? *kya: kita:b h�?

Different constituents of subordinate clauses can be questioned. There are two types of subordinate clauses: finite and non-finite. As is the case with matrix sentences, all elements of these clauses canbe questioned. Constituents, which undergo deletion in the process of non-finitization, however, cannot be questioned. This supports the argument that the question formation rule applies after the rules for non-finitization of the subordinate clauses take place.

50. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO maaohna nao Amar kao klakya: a:pko pata: h� mohan ne amar ko kal Q you-dat knowledge is Mohan-erg Amar-dat yesterday iktaba dIÆkita:b di:?

book gave-f Do you know that Mohan gave a book to Amar yesterday?

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Subject 50a. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO Amar kao iksanao kla iktaba dI?

(kya:) a:pko pata: h� amar ko kisne kal kita:b di:? You know who gave a book to Amar yesterday?

Direct object50b. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao kla Amar kao @yaa idyaa?

(kya:) a:pko pata: h� ki mohan ne kal amar ko kya: diya:? Do you know what Mohan gave to Amar yesterday?

Indirect object 50c. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao iksakao kla iktaba dI?

(kya:)a:pko pata: h� mohan ne kisko kal kita:b di:? You know to whom Mohan gave a book yesterday?

Time adverbial 50d. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao kba Amar kao iktaba dI?

(kya:) a:pko pata: h� ki mohan ne kab amar ko kita:b di?You know when Mohan gave the book to Amar?

The questioning of the constituent clauses may also involve questioning of the matrix clause.

Note that no constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned.

51. rmaoSa sao jaao daost Aaja imalaa vah caalaak hO.rame� se jo dost a:j mila: vah ca:la:k h�. Ramesh-abl rel friend today met he clever is The friend who met Ramesh is clever.

51a. *rmaoSa sao kaOna daost Aaja imalaa caalaak hO? *rame� ka: k�n dost a:j mila: ca:la:k h�?

Constituents of non-finite subordinate clauses which comprise infinitival and participial phrases can be questioned.

52. vah Kanaa Kato hue AK,baar pZ, rha qaa.vah kha:na: kha:te hue akhba:r par�h raha: tha:.he food eating-part newspaper read-prog was He was reading a newspaper while eating his meal.

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Direct object52a. vah kyaa Kato hue AK,baar pZ, rha qaa?

vah kya: kha:te hue akhba:r par�h raha: tha:?What was he eating while reading a newspaper?

53. vah caaya pIto hue baccao kao pZ,a rha qaa.vah ca:y pi:te hue bacce ko par�ha: raha: tha:.he tea drinking-part child-dat teach-prog wasHe was teaching the child while drinking his tea?

Indirect object 53a. vah iksa kao caaya pIto hue pZa, rha qaa?

vah kis ko ca:y pi:te hue par�ha: raha: tha:?Who was he teaching while drinking his tea?

54. vah raja ko saaqa baatoM krto hue jaa rha qaa.vah ra:j ke sa:th ba:t� karte hue ja: raha: tha:. he Raj with talk do-ptc go-prog was He was talking to Raj while going.

Object of a postposition54a. vah iksako saaqa baatoM krto hue jaa rha qaa?

vah kiske sa:th ba:t� karte hue ja: raha: tha:? Who was he talking to while going?

The subject of the subordinate clauses undergoes deletion in sentences (52a-54a) because it is co-referential to the subject of the matrix sentence. All the constituents of gerundive and infinitivalclause can be questioned.

55. vah @yaa krnao idllaI gayaa? vah kya: karne dilli: gaya:? he what do-inf-obl Delhi went Why did he go to Delhi?

56. maasTr nao laD,ko kao p~ ilaKnao ko ilae �ar ne lar�ke ko patr likhne ke liye kaha:.teacher-erg student-dat letter write-inf-obl for told The teacher asked the student to write a letter?

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56a. maasTr nao laD,ko kao @yaa krnao ko ilae kha? ma:st �ar ne lar�ke ko kya: karne ke liye kaha:?What did the teacher ask his student to do?

56b. maasTr nao laD,ko kao @yaa ilaKnao ko ilae kha? ma:st �ar ne lar�ke ko kya: likhne ke liye kaha:?What did the father ask his son to write?

Different constituents of a noun phrase can be questioned. A noun phrase may be made up of any of the following: (a) demonstrativepronoun, (b) quantifier, (c) intensifier, (d) descriptive adjective, (e)classifier/specifier, (f) possessive adjective, (g) possessor, (h) particle and a noun. Nouns may also modify relative clauses and objects of comparison.

Demonstrative pronoun57a. yah CaoTI laD,kI Gar jaaegaI.

yeh chot�i: lar�ki: ghar ja:yegi:.this little girl home go-3s-fut This little girl will go home.

57b. kaOna saI CaoTI laD,kI Gar jaaegaI? k�n si: chot�i: lar�ki: ghar ja:yegi:? Which little girl will go home?

Quantifier (cardinal number) 58a. maaohna ko tIna daost kla AaeÐgao.

mohan ke ti:n dost kal a:y�ge. Mohan-gen three friends tomorrow come-3p-fut Mohans three friends will come tomorrow.

58b. maaohna ko tIna daost kla AaeÐgao? mohan ke kitne dost kal a:y�ge? How many friends of Mohan will come tomorrow?

Quantifier (ordinal number)59a. ]saka tIsara baoTa idllaI maoM hO.

uska: ti:sra: bet�a: dilli: m� h�. he-gen third son Delhi in isHis third son is in Delhi.

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59b. ]saka kaOna saa baoTa idllaI maoM hO? uska: k�n sa: bet�a: dilli: m� h�? Which son of his is in Delhi?

Quantifier (proportional number) 60a. vah hmaoSaa caaOgaunaa Kca- krta hO.

vah hame�a: c�guna: kharc karta: h�.he always four times expenditure do-pr isHe always incurs four times the expenses of everyone else.

60b. vah iktnao gaunaa Kca- krta hO? vah kitne guna: kharc karta: h�? How many times the expenditure of everyone else does he incur?

Descriptive adjective61a. ptlaa laD,ka GaaoD,o pr nahIM caZ, sakta.

patla: lar�ka: ghor�e par nah�: car�h sakta:. slim boy horse on neg ride can-ptc The slim boy cannot ride the horse.

61b. kaOna saI laD,kI kar nahIM calaa saktI? k�n si: lar�ki: ka:r nah�: cala: sakti:? Which girl cannot drive the car?

Intensifier 62a. rmaa bahut hI laMbaI laD,kI hO.

rama: bahut hi: lambi: lar�ki: h�. Rama very (intensifier) tall-fs girl is Rama is a very tall girl.

62b. rmaa iktnaI laMbaI laD,kI hO? rama: kitni: lambi: lar�ki: h�?How tall a girl is Rama?

Possessive adjective63a. maaohna ka kalaoja idllaI maoM hO.

mohan ka: ka:lej dilli: m� h�.Mohan-gen college is Delhi-loc is in Mohan�s college is in Delhi.

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63b. iksaka kalaoja idllaI maoM hO? kiska: ka:lej dilli: m� h�? Whose college is in Delhi?

Specifier/classifier64a. maaohna ka baD,a vaalaa baoTa baImaar hO.

mohan ka: bar�a: va:la: bet�a: bi:ma:r h�. Mohan-gen elder (specifier) son sick is Mohan�s elder son is sick.

64b. maaohna ka kaOna saa baoTa baImaar hO? mohan ka: k�n sa: bet�a: bi:ma:r h�? Which of Mohans sons is sick?

Particles hI hi: and BaI bhi: cannot be questioned.

65a. tuma hI jaaAao.tum hi: ja:o.

you-par go-3s-fut Only you go.

65b. *kaOna hI jaaAao.*k�n hi: ja:o.

66. vah BaI Aapko saaqa Aaegaa.vah bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:. he-part you-gen with come-3s-fut Hell also come with you.

66a. *kaOna BaI Aapko saaqa Aaegaa.*k�n bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:.

A comparative phrase can also modify a noun phrase.

Object of comparison 67a. maOMnao rjanaI sao laMbaI laD,kI doKI.

m��ne rajini se lambi: lar�ki: dekhi:. I-erg Rajni-abl than tall-fs girl saw-fs I saw a girl taller than Rajni.

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67b. maOMnao iksasao laMbaI laD,kI doKI.m��ne kis-se lambi: lar�ki: dekhi:? I-erg who-abl tall girl saw-fut I saw a girl taller than whom?

There are two types of relative clauses: non-finite and finite. No constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned. Any element of a non-finite relative clause, except the subject, can be questioned.

68. yah baccaaoM kao pOsao donao vaalaa hO.yeh baccõ ko p�se dene va:la: h�. he children-dat money give-inf aux He is going to give money to the children.

Direct object of a non-finite relative clause68a. yah baccaaoM kao @yaa donao vaalaa hO?

yeh baccõ ko kya: dene va:la: h�? What is he going to give to the children?

Indirect object of a non-finite relative clause 68b. yah iknakao pOsao donao vaalaa hO?

yeh kinko p�se dene va:la: h�? Who he is going to give money to?

Elements of a postpositional phrase can also be questioned. A postpositional phrase consists of a head noun followed by a postposition. The postposition assigns the case to the head noun. The noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase can be questioned. The noun phrase, which is followed by a postposition, is in the oblique case.

69. [sa maoja, pr kakja, mez par ka:kaz h�. this-obl table on paper isThere is paper on this table.

69a. iksa maoja, pr kakja, hO? kis mez par ka:kaz h�? Which table is the paper on?

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69b. kakja, iksa pr hO? ka:kaz kis par h�? What is the paper (placed) on?

70. maaohna ko Gar ko pasa dukana hO.mohan ke ghar ke pa:s duka:n h�. Mohan-poss house near shop isThere is a shop near Mohans house.

70a. iksako Gar ko pasa dukana hO? kiske ghar ke pa:s duka:n h�? Near whose house is there a shop?

70b. iksako pasa dukana hO? kiske pa:s duka:n h�? Near which place is a shop?

It is only the noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase which can be questioned, not the postpositions.

Elements of a coordinate structure can be questioned. The coordinate structures are formed either by juxtaposition or by the use of a conjunction.

Juxtaposition 71. SaIlaa icaT\zI ilaKnao ko ilae kakja, klama laa[-.

�i:la: cit�t�hi: likhne ke liye ka:kaz kalam la:i:. Shiela letter write-inf for paper pen brought

Shiela brought paper and pen for writing a letter.

71a. SaIlaa kakja, klama @yaa ilaKnao ko ilae laa[-? �i:la: ka:kaz kalam kya: likhne ke liye la:i:?

71b. SaIlaa icaT\zI ilaKnao ko ilae @yaa laa[-? �i:la: cit�t�hi: likhne ke liye kya: la:i:?

Conjunction 72. maaohna AaOr AjaIt idllaI gae.

mohan �r aji:t dilli: gae.Mohan and Ajit Delhi went Mohan and Ajit went to Delhi.

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72a. maaohna AaOr kaOna gae?mohan �r k�n gae?Mohan and who went? (Mohan went with whom?)

72b. *kaOna AaOr AjaIt idllaI gae?*k�n �r aji:t dilli: gae? Who and Ajit went to Delhi?

72c. kaOna kaOna idllaI gae?k�n k�n dilli: gae? Who (are the ones who) went to Delhi?

73. SaaIlaa AaOr maaohna nao Apnaa Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa.�i:la: �r mohan ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:. Shiela and Mohan-erg self�s work finish didShiela and Mohan finished their work.

73a. SaaIlaa AaOr iksanao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa? �i:la: �r kisne apna: apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:?Shiela and who finished their work?

73b. *iksanao AaOr SaIlaa nao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa? *kisne �r �i:la: ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:? Who and Shiela finished their work?

73c. iksa iksa nao kama samaaPt ikyaa? kis kis ne ka:m sama:pt kiya:? Who (are the ones who) finished their work?

74. ]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr iktaba pZ,I.usne cit�t�hi: likhi: �r kita:b par�hi:.he-erg letter wrote-fs and book read-fs He wrote a letter and read a book.

74a. *]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr @yaa pZ,I? *usne cit�t�hi: likhi: �r kya: par�hi:?

74b. *]sanao @yaa ilaKI AaOr iktaba pZ,I? *usne kya: likhi: �r kita:b par�hi:?

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74c. ]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr @yaa ikyaa? usne cit�t�hi: likhi: �r kya: kiya:? He wrote a letter and what else did he do?

74d. ]sanao @yaa @yaa ikyaa? usne kya: kya: kiya:? What are the things he did?

75. ]sanao raoTI Ka[- AaOr dUQa ipyaa.usne rot �i: kha:i: �r du:dh piya:. He-erg bread ate-fs and milk drank-msHe ate bread and drank milk.

75a. ]sanao raoTI Ka[- AaOr @yaa ipyaa? usne rot �i: kha:i: �r kya: piya:? He ate bread and what did he drink?

75b. *]sanao @yaa Kayaa AaOr dUQa ipyaa? usne kya: kha:ya: �r du:dh piya:?

No part of the juxtaposition phrase can be questioned. The questioning of the first element of a coordinate noun phrase resultsin the formation of ill-formed sentences as in (73b) and (75b).Similarly, in the coordinate verb phrases, the object of the first verb phrase cannot be questioned.

There is no constraint on the number of constituents of a sentence that can be questioned at one time. The multiple question-word questions are normally used at the end of the narration of a story,especially a folk tale, for checking the comprehension of thelisteners.

76. maaohna kla Amar ko saaqa baaga doKnao gayaa.mohan kal amar ke sa:th ba:g dekhne gaya:.Mohan yesterday Amar with garden see-inf-obl went Mohan went to see the garden with Amar yesterday.

76a. maaohna kla @yaa doKnao gayaa Amar ko saaqa? mohan kal kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th?What did Mohan go to see with Amar yesterday?

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76b. maaohna kba @yaa doKnao gayaa Amar ko saaqa? mohan kab kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th?What did Mohan go to see with Amar and when?

76c. maaohna iksako saaqa @yaa doKnao kla gayaa? mohan kiske sa:th kya: dekhne kal gaya:?Who did Mohan go with to see what yesterday?

76d. maaohna kba iksako saaqa @yaa doKnao gayaa? mohan kab kiske sa:th kya: dekhne gaya:?When did Mohan go with whom (and) for seeing what?

Question-words are reduplicated when the expected answer is a listing of persons, items, or events. Multi-question-word questionsare used when information about different things is wanted all at the same time in one answer.

77. kaOna kaOna kba kba ikna ikna ko pasa jaata hO? k�n k�n kab kab kin kin ke pa:s ja:ta: h�? who when whom near go-ptc is Who (which individual) goes with whom (which individual)where/what places (and) when?

This sentence can be used by an employer seeking information regarding his/her employees. Question-words which are not used in plural cannot be reduplicated. For example, the question word kyõwhy cannot be used in its reduplicated form.

78. *kaOna kaOna kba kba @yaaoM @yaaoM jaata hO? *k�n k�n kab kab kyõ kyõ ja:ta: h�?

The constituents of both the main and subordinate clauses can bequestioned at the same time and the question words can be reduplicated.

79. iksakI raya maoM kaOna kaOna khaÐ khaÐ iksa iksa ko pasa jaata hO? kiski: ra:y m� k�n k�n kahã: kahã: kis kis ke pa:s ja:ta: h�.who-obl opinion in who where who-obl near go-ptc is Who thinks that who (which individual) goes (near) to whom (which individual) and where (what place)?

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There is a flexibility as far as the placement of the questioned constituent is concerned. The movement of the questioned elements is related to their focus. Consider the following examples:

80. rmaoSa kba Aaegaa? rame� kab a:yega:? Ramesh when come-3s-fut When will Ramesh come?

80a. kba Aaegaa rmaoSa? kab a:yega: rame�?

80b. rmaoSa Aaegaa kba? rame� a:yega: kab?

80c. Aaegaa kba rmaoSa? a:yega: kab rame�?

81. sarlaa khaÐ jaaegaI? sarla: kahã: ja:yegi?Sarla where go-fs Where will Sarla go?

81a. sarlaa jaaegaI khaÐ? sarla: ja:yegi: kahã:?

81b. khaÐ jaaegaI sarlaa? kahã: ja:yegi: sarla:?

81c. jaaegaI khaÐ sarlaa? ja:yegi: kahã: sarla:?

The question-word in the sentence initial position carries a stronger focus than when it is in the second position. In other words, it ismarked by more stress in the sentence initial position than in other positions. Interrogative sentences (80) and (81) are in natural word order. In (80a) and (81a), the subject is stressed, in (80b) and (81b) the question words are stressed, and in (80c) and (81c) the verb is stressed. The interrogative sentences (80c) and (81c) do notnecessarily invoke an answer.

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Usually the question-word @yaaoM kyõ why occurs in the pre-verbalposition. It follows the verb within the sentence. The movement of this question- word influences the meaning of the sentence. Theplacement of this question word in the post-verbal position ispossible, but it does not necessarily invoke an answer.

82. Aapnao ]sao iktaba @yaaoM dI? a:pne use kita:b kyõ di:?you-erg book he-dat why gave? Why did you give him a book?

82a. iktaba @yaaoM dI? kita:b kyõ di:?

82b. @yaaoM iktaba dI? kyõ di: kita:b?

82c. dI iktaba @yaaoM? di: kyõ kita:b?

In (82a) there is stress on the direct object; in (82b) the stress is onthe question-word; and in (82c) the stress is on the verb and theindirect object. Echo-Questions

There are two types of echo-questions: (a) yes-no echo-questions, and (b) question-word echo-questions. Yes-No Echo-Questions

A yes-no echo-question usually repeats one or more elements of the statement uttered by the previous speaker. The element/elementschosen for clarification is/are retained with a rising intonation and other elements are deleted. For example, the response to a statement made in (83) can be in different forms (83a-83e) in yes-no echo-questions.

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83. maaohna kla baaja,ar jaaegaa.mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega: Mohan tomorrow market go-3s-futMohan will go to market tomorrow.

83a. maaohna kla baaja,ar jaaegaa? mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega:? Will Mohan go to market tomorrow?

83b. baaja,ar jaaegaa? ba:za:r ja:yega:?Will (Mohan) go to market?

83c. maaohna kla jaaegaa? mohan kal ja:yega:? Will Mohan go tomorrow?

83d. maaohna jaaegaa? mohan ja:yega:?Will Mohan go (to the market tomorrow)?

83e. maaohna? mohan? (Will) Mohan (go to market tomorrow)?

The yes-no echo-questions may be preceded by the term accha: �it is so�.

84. vah kla idllaI sao Aaegaa? vah kal dilli: se a:yega:. he tomorrow Delhi-abl from come-fut He will come from Delhi tomorrow.

84a. AcCa¸ vah kla idllaI sao Aaegaa? accha:, vah kal dilli: se a:yega:? Is it so that he�ll come from Delhi tomorrow?

Using the same intonational patterns as in yes-no questions echoing a statement, yes-no question echo-questions are formed either by asking the previous speaker whether he/she asked the question or byreplacing the constituent under focus. Yes-no questions are prompted by the previous speakers question and they do not merely

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seek clarification of the previous speakers statement.

85. Aapnao iktaba pZ,I? a:pne kita:b par�hi:?you-erg book read-fs-pst bookDid you read the book?

85a. maOMMnao iktaba pZ,I? m��ne kita:b par�hi:?Did I read the book?

85b. Aap pUC rho hOM ik maOMnao iktaba pZ,I? a:p pu:ch rahe h�� (ki) m��ne kita:b par�hi:? You are asking if I read the book?

The focused constituent receives stress if the speaker chooses to retain unfocused elements. Question-Word Echo-Questions

A question-word may also be used in echo questions and elements of the statement may be repeated depending on the clarification sought.

86. vah p~ ilaK rha hO.vah patr likh raha: h�. he letter write-pr is He is writing a letter.

86a. @yaa ilaK rha hO? kya: likh raha: h�? What is he writing?

86b. @yaa? kya:?

What (is he writing)?

86c. p~. patr

(He is writing a) letter.

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Question-word echo-questions are uttered with a slightly risingintonation at the end of the phrase or sentence in yes-no questions. It is not so in question-word questions. The questioner may also use the expected answer in his/her question with a rising intonation.

86d. @yaa ilaK rha hO, p~? kya: likh raha: h�, patr? What is he writing, a letter?

86e. haÐ haÐ, p~.hã: hã:, patr.Yes, a letter.

In (86d), a pause (indicated by a comma) separates the two risingintonation patterns. A statement containing more than one constituent permits the use of more than one echo-question.

87. haÐ, ]sanao kla iktaba pZ,I.hã:, usne kal kita:b par�hi:. yes he-erg yesterday book read-fsYes, he read a book yesterday.

87a. iksanao (kla) iktaba pZ,I.kisne (kal kita:b) par�hi:?Who read (a book yesterday)?

87b. iksanao @yaa pZ,I? kisne kya: par�hi:? Who read what?

87c. iksanao @yaa ikyaa? kisne kya: kiya:? Who did what?

Question-word echo-questions follow the same pattern.

88. Aap @yaa kr rho hOM? a:p kya: kar rahe h��? you what are-2s doingWhat are you doing?

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88a. maOM @yaa kr rha hUÐ? m�� kya: kar raha: h�:? I what am-ms doingWhat am I doing?

All elements in a sentence, including the verb and any possible combination thereof, can be questioned.

89. maOM pUC rha hUРiksanao iksaoo AaOr kba kmaIja, dI? m�� pu:ch raha: h�: kisne kisko �r kab kami:z di:? I ask-pr am who-erg who-dat and when shirt gaveIm asking you who gave a shirt to whom and when?

89a. iksanao iksaoo AaOr kba kmaIja, dI? kisne kise kab kami:z di:? Who gave a shirt to whom and when?

89b. iksanao iksaoo kba @yaa idyaa? kisne kise kab kya: diya:? Who gave what to whom and when?

In (89b), the verb is echo-questioned. Answers

Not all types of answers can be formally distinguished from otherdeclarative statements. Answers to yes-no questions require the useof the agreement and disagreement markers haÐ hã �yes� and nahIMM nah�:�no� respectively in the sentence initial position, which may befollowed with certain honorific markers. Answers to question-word questions involve the stating of the constituent required by the question. The rest of the elements of the sentence are usually deleted.

90. vah kba Aagara jaaegaa? vah kab a:gra: ja:yega:?When will he go to Agra?

90a. prsaaoM jaaegaa.parsõ ja:yega:. (He) will go day after tomorrow.

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90b. prsaaoM.parsõ. Day after tomorrow.

The minimum answers to a yes-no question include haÐ hã: �yes�, nahIMMnah�: �no� Saayad �a:yad �perhaps�, maalaUma ma:lu:m/ pta nahIMM pata: nah�: �itis not known�. The short answers may optionally be followed by polite or honorific particles or terms. The polite particle jaI ji: can be added to both positive and negative short answers. It usually precedes the answers. In speech under the influence of Punjabi, itfollows the affirmative or negative short answers. It is added to indicate politeness for any questioner older or younger than the respondent. Other formal honorific markers used are ijanaaba jina:b orsaahba sa:hab �sir/madam� for addressing people of all communities. The English honorific terms, sir and madam are also frequently usedby the educated community.

91. vah Aaja Aaegaa Aagara sao? vah a:j a:yega a:gra: se?he come-fut today Agra-abl from Will he come from Agra today?

91a. haÐ /jaI haÐ /haÐ ijanaaba/ haÐ saahba/ haÐ sar/ haÐ maOD,mahã:/ji: hã:/hã: jina:b/hã: sa:hab/hã: sar/ hã: m�d�am Yes/ yes sir/madam.

91b. nahIM / jaI nahIM /nahIM ijanaaba/ nahIM saahba/ nahIM sar/ nahIM maOD,manah�:/ji: nah�:/nah�: jina:b/nah�: sa:hab/nah�: sar/ nah�: m�d�am

No/no sir/madam.

91c. Saayad. �a:yad.


91d. @yaa maalaUma /@yaa ptaa/ jaI @yaa pta? kya: ma:lu:m/kya: pata:/ ji: kya: pata:?

Who knows?

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91e. pta nahIM /maalaUma nahIM / jaI maalaUma nahIM . pata: nah�: /ma:lu:m nah�:/ ji: ma:lu:m nah�:. It is not known.

91f. pta nahIM /maalaUma nahIM.pata:/ma:lu:m nah�:.

I don�t know.

The honorific terms ijanaaba jina:b and saahba sa:hab can also be added inthe sentence initial position.

91dd. ijanaaba / saahba @yaa pta? jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:?Sir, who knows?

91ee. ijanaaba / saahba @yaa pta? jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:?Sir, it is not known.

91ff. ijanaaba / saahba pta/maalaUma nahIM.jina:b/sa:hab pata:/ma:lu:m nah�:. Sir, I don�t know.

The agreement or affirmative response is sometimes indicatedmerely by using the honorific terms ijanaaba jina:b and saahba sa:hab as inthe following examples:

92. vah caalaak nahIM hO? vah ca:la:k nah�: h�? he clever neg-Q isIsn�t he clever?

92a. jaI /jaI hO/ haи vah caalaak nahIM hO? ji:/ ji: h�/ hã:, jina:b/hã: sa:hab h�. Yes, he is.

As shown above, answers to yes-no questions may be yes, or no, orother response terms or expressions. The positive and negative response particles haÐ hã: yes and nahIM anah�: no can be reduplicated for

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emphasis. They may be followed by certain expressions for greater emphasis.

93. Aap maora yah kama kroMgao? a:p mera: yeh ka:m kar�ge? you my this work-ms do fut-qWill you do this work for me?

93a. haÐ haÐ, ja,$r/ AvaSya.hã: hã:, zaru:r/ava�ya.

yes yes definitely. Yes, I�ll do it, definitely.

93b. haÐ haÐ, @yaaoM nahIM? hã: hã:, kyõ nah�:? yes yes why not Yes, why not?

94. Aap Aagara nahIM AaeÐgao? a:p a:gra: nah�: a:y�ge? you Agra neg come-2p-fut Won�t you come to Agra?

94a. nahIM nahIMM, ibalkula nahIM.nah�: nah�:, bilkul nah�: no no absolutely notNo, not at all.

The expression ibalkula bilkul is followed by the negative marker. It is to be noted that affirmative and negative particles only are reduplicated, not other response terms and expressions.

94b. *nahIM (nahIM), Saayad Saayad nahIM.*nah�: (nah�:) �a:yad �a:yad nah�:.

94c. *nahIM (nahIM), @yaa pta @yaa pta.*nah�: (nah�:) kya: pata:, kya: pata:

Answers to positive and negative leading questions are determinedby the proposition underlying the question and not by the tagquestion.

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95. Aap yah kama kroMgao, kroMgao naa? a:p yah ka:m kar�g�, kar�ge na:?you this work do-fut, do-fut neg-qYou will do this work, won�t you?

95a. haи k$Ðgaa.hã:, kar�:ga:.

yes do-1s-futYes, I�ll do it.

96. Aap yah kama nahIM kroMgao, kroMgao? a:p yah ka:m nah�: kar�ge, kar�ge? You won�t do this work, will you?

96a. nahIM (maOM nahIM k$Ðgaa).nah�: (m�� nah�: kar�:ga).No (I will not do it).

4.3.5. Imperatives

Imperative sentences are marked for number, gender, person, and degree of politeness. There are three types of imperative constructions: (a) unmarked or true imperatives, (b) prohibitive imperatives and (c) obligative imperatives. Unmarked or True Imperatives

The unmarked imperative takes the second person subjects tU tu: �you� (non honorific intimate singular), tuma tum �you� (non-honorific/plural), and Aap a:p �you� (honorific plural/singular). Notice that the honorific plural and the honorific singular forms are the same. The singular imperative consists of the verbal stem. Whereas the singular non-honorific form remains unchanged, the suffix -Aao -o is added to derive the plural non-honorific forms andthe suffix � [e -iye is added to derive the singular/plural honorific forms. If the verb stems end in the vowels [- /i:/ or e /e/, the suffix � [-ijae -i:jiye is added to the honorific singular and plural forms. The stem final vowels [- /i:/ and e /e/ are dropped before the imperative suffixes or the plural non-honorific -Aao -o and singular/plural honorific suffix � [-ijae -i:jiye are added.

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1.Sg non hon Pl non-hon Pl/hon(tU tu:) (tuma tum) (Aap a:p)pZ, pZ,ao piZe,par�h read par�ho par�hiye Please read. ilaK ilaKao ilaiKelikh write likho likhiye Please write.laa laaAao laa[e la: bring la:o la:iye Please bring.Ka KaAao Ka[e kha: eat kha:o kha:iye Please eat.pI ipAao pIijaepi: drink piyo pi:jiye Please drink.lao laao laIijaele take lo li:jiye Please take.

The polite markers jaI ji:, saahba sa:hab, and ijanaaba jina:b can be added to the honorific imperative forms.

1a. Polite pl./hon. sg. piZe jaI par�hiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please read. ilaiKe jaI likhiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please write.laa[e jaI la:iye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please bring. Ka[e jaI kha:iye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please eat.pIijae jaI pi:jiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please drink. laIijae jaI li:jiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please take.

With an object, the order will be as follows:

1b. Aap iktaba piZe.a:p kita:b par�hiye.

you book read-plPlease read the book. Prohibitive Imperatives

Prohibitive imperatives are formed by adding the negative particle mat don�t in the pre verbal position.

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2. iktaba pZ/pZ,ao/ piZ,e.kita:b par�h / par�ho / par�hiye.Read a book.

2a. iktaba mat pZ/pZ,ao/ piZ,e.kita:b mat par�h / par�ho/ par�hiye. Don�t read a book.

3. p~ ilaK/ilaKaoo/ ilaiKe. patr likh/likho/likhiye. Write a letter.

3a. p~ mat ilaK/ilaKaoo/ ilaiKe. patr mat likh/likho/likhiye. Don�t write a letter.

Prohibitive imperatives can also be formed by using the verb formmanaa mana:/ vaija-t haonaa varjit hona: to be prohibitive as in (4-4a).

4. Saraba pInaa manaa /vaija-t hO. �ara:b pi:na: mana:/varjit h�. liquor drink-Inf prohibited is Drinking (of liquor) is prohibited.

4a. isagaroT pInaa manaa hO. sigret � pi:na: mana: h�. cigarette smoke-inf prohibited is Smoking is prohibited.

Prohibitive imperatives are also constructed from expressions like K,bardar xabarda:r/saavaQaana sa:vadha:n �beware�.

5. K,bardar / saavaQaana dor sao na Aanaa.xabarda:r/sa:vadha:n der se na a:na:.beware late-abl neg come-inf Beware, don�t come late. (You better not come late.)

The expressions K,bardar xabarda:r/ saavaQaana sa:vadha:n are followed by conditional clauses.

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257 Degrees of Imperatives

The unmarked ordinary imperative is stronger than the polite imperative. The obligatives of compulsion are stronger than the obligatives of prescription and the polite imperatives. Certaindevices are used to strengthen or weaken the force of the imperative. Intonation and tone play an important role in the degree of theimperative. A soft tone of persuasion weakens and a hardauthoritative tone strengthens the degree of the imperative.

Certain lexical items or phrases, such as kRpyaa krapaya: kindly kRpa kripa:/ maohrbaanaI krko meharba:ni: karke �after being kind�, and Bagavaana saavaQaana Kuda ko ilae bhagva:n/xuda: ke liye �for God�s sake� are added to imperative sentences to add politeness. They weaken the imperative.

6. kRpyaa Gar jaa[e.krapaya: ghar ja:yiye. kindly home go-pol-futKindly go home.

7. kRpa / maohrbaanaI krko pOsao dIijae.krapa:/meharba:ni: karke p�se di:jiye. kindness do-cp money give-pol-fut Kindly give money.

8. Bagavaana ko ilae samaya barbaad mat kIijae.bhagva:n ke liye samay barba:d mat ki:jiye. God-abl sake/for time waste neg do-pol-fut For Gods sake, don�t waste time.

The vocative forms may also be used in the sentence initial position to strengthen and weaken the degree of imperative. The vocativeforms are as follows.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl Aao o Aao o Aao o Aao o Aro are Aro are ArI ari: Aro are

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9. Aro drvaaja,a baMd krao.are darva:za: band karo.hey door do-2s-fut close-2s-impHey, close the door.

9a. Aro¸ maorI baat tao sauinae.are, meri: ba:t to suniye. O, my talk emp listen-2p-imp Hey, listen to me.

The vocative address forms may be followed by kinship terms like Baa[-bha:i: �brother�, yaar ya:r/daost dost/ima~ mitr �friend�, Pyaaro pya:re �dear one� biahna bahin �sister�, and maa[- ma:i: �mother�.

10. Aro Baa[-ÀyaarÀdaostÀima~ÀPyaaro dUQa laaAao.are bha:i:/ya:r/dost/mitr/pya:re du:dh la:o. hey brother/friend/dear one milk bring-2s-impHey brother/friend/dear one, bring the milk.

10a. ArI baihna¸ Apnaa kama kr.ari: bahan, apna: ka:m kar. hey-f sister selfs work do-2s-impHey sister, do your work.

10b. ho Baa[- saahba yah AK,baar piZ,e.he bha:i: sa:hab yah akhba:r par�hiye. oh-hon brother hon this newspaper read-polOh brother, please read this newspaper.

The vocatives may also be followed by derogative terms like pagala pa:gal �mad�, abusive terms like saalao sa:le �brother-in-law�, and sausaro susre �father-in-law� or other derogative expressions of address. The use of such derogative terms and abusive kinship terms strengthenthe imperative.

11. Aro saalao¸ @yaa baaolata hOÆ are sa:le, kya: bolta: h�? hey-mas brother-in-law what say-ptc beHey (my) brother-in-law, what are you saying?

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11a. Aao pagala¸ yahaÐ AaAao.o pa:gal, yahã: a:ohey mad person here come-2s-imp O mad one, come here.

The use of reduplicated forms of imperatives reinforces the impolite force.

12. jaa jaa¸ sauna ilayaa.ja: ja:, sun liya:. go go listened Go, I have listened.

Yes-no positive and negative questions in the future tense may alsoconvey the force of imperative form.

13. ³Aap´tsvaIr doMgaoÆ(a:p) tasvi:r d�ge?

you picture give-fut-qWould you give the picture?

13a. Aap doMgao @yaa tsvaIrÆa:p d�ge kya: tasvi:r?

you give-fut-q picture

13b. tsvaIr doMgao @yaaÆtasvi:r d�ge kya:? Would you give (me) the picture?

Performative verbs such as inavaodna krnaa nivedan karna: �to make a request�, and (haaqa jaaoD,kr ha:th jor� kar) p`aqa-naa krnaa pra:rthana: karna:�to make a request (with folded hands�) also render imperative force in their complement clause.

14. maOM haqa jaaoD,kr p`aqa-naa krta hUРmauJapr kRpa krao.m�� ha:th jor�kar pra:rthana: karta: h�: mujhpar kripa: karo.I hands fold-cp request do-ptc am me-dat on kindness do I humbly request you to be kind to me.

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4.3.6. Anaphora

Here we will discuss (i) the means of expressing anaphora and (ii) the domains of anaphora. Anaphora in Hindi may be personal pronouns, reflexives, zero pronouns (i.e., null elements PRO or pro) or quasi-pronouns.

In a narrative text or natural discourse, deletion is a prominentdevice in expressing the anaphora, e.g.,

1. ek idna maOMnao ek baccao kao rasto pr raoto doKa¸ ek din m��ne ek bacce ko ra:ste par rote hue dekha:, one day I-erg one child-dat road-obl on weep-ptc saw pUCa tuma kaOna haoÆpu:cha: tum k�n ho?asked you who are One day I saw a child crying on the road; I asked (him),

Who are you?

In the above example, the anaphoric subject and object (the child)become accessible by means of deletion or zero anaphora in the second sentence. They are recoverable from the first sentence.

Since the verb agrees with the subject and/or object in gender, number, and person, depending on various kinds of constructions, the subject and object can be deleted.

2. maaohna Co bajao Gar phuÐcaa¸ kpD,oo badlao AaOr Aayaa.Mohan che baje ghar pah�ca:, kapr�e badle �r a:ya:. Mohan reached home six-abl hour clothes changed and came Mohan reached home at six oclock; (he) changed his clothes and he came here.

Anaphoric elements are frequently in the third person, and they are often expressed by personal pronouns.

3. maaohna AaOr ]sakI p%naI saOr krnao gae¸ ]sakao zaokr lagaImohan �r uski: patni: s�r karne gaye, usko t �hokar lagi: Mohan and his wife walk do-inf-obl went he-dat stumbled AaOr igar gayaa.�r gir gaya:

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and fell Mohan and his wife went for a walk. He stumbled and fell down.

Anaphora is expressed by possessive and reflexive pronouns as given in (4) and (5).

4. ]sanao Apnao ima~ sao pOsao ]Qaar ilae.usne apne mitr se p�se udha:r liye. he-erg refl friend-from money credit took He took money from his friend on loan.

5. Aimat Gar Aayaa AaOr svayaM p%naI kao dvaa[- dI.amit ghar a:ya: �r svayam patni: ko dava:i: di:Amit home came and self wife-dat medicine gave Amit came home and gave medicine to his wife himself.

Certain other devices like the use of saara sa:ra: all, and the use of ordinals like phlaa pahla: �first� and dUsara du:sra: �second�, are alsoemployed to denote anaphora.

6. maohna baaja,ar sao saoba laayaa. saaro saD,o hue qao.mohan ba:za:r se seb la:ya:. sa:re sar�e hue the. Mohan market from apples brought all rotten-ptc were Mohan brought apples from the market. All were rotten.

7. ]maa AaOr SaaoBaa bahnaoM hOM.phlaI caalaak h¸Ouma: �r �obha: bahn� h�.� pahli: ca:la:kh h�, Uma and Shobha: sisters are first clever isAaOr dUsarI saIQaI saadI.�r du:sri: si:dhi: sadi:. and second simple Uma and Shobha are sisters. The former is clever and the latter is simple.

The anaphora occurs within the clause with reflexive pronouns. Personal pronouns are not employed for this purpose.

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8. vakIla kao Apnao pr pUra Baraosaa hO.vaki:l ko apne par pu:ra: bharosa: h�. advocate-dat refl-obl on full confidence is The advocate has full confidence in himself.

9. vah ApnaI p%naI ko saaqa idllaI gayaa.vah apni: patni: ke sa:th dilli: gaya:. he refl-dat wife with Delhi went He went to Delhi with his wife.

Anaphora between coordinate structures is usually forward. It is marked by deletion or pronominalization.

10. maaohna samaya pr phuÐcaa AaOr � Apnaa kama ikyaa.

mohan samay par pah�ca: �r � apna: ka:m kiya: Mohan time on reached and � refl work did Mohan reached in time and did his work.

10a. maaohna (i) samaya pr phuÐcaa AaOr � ]sanao (i) Apnaa kama ikyaa.

mohan (i) samay par pah�ca: �r � usne (i) apna: ka:m kiya: Mohan time on reached and � he-erg self work did Mohan reached (office) in time and did his work.

It is possible to have an anaphora between superordinate andsubordinate clauses. Usually, subordinate clauses (except for subject complementation, relative clauses and if � then clauses) followsuperordinate clauses. Deletion indicates anaphora between a superordinate and a following subordinate clause.

11. maaÐ nao baoTo (i) kao � (i) p~ ilaKnao ko ilae kha.

mã: ne bet�e (i) ko � (i) patr likhne ke liye kaha: mother-erg son-dat � letter write-inf-abl for said

The mother asked her son to write a letter.

11a. maaÐ nao baoTo (i) kao kha vah (i) p~ ilaKo.mã: ne bet�e(i) ko kaha: vah (i) patr likhe. mother-erg son-dat said he letter write-subj The mother asked her son to write a letter.

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Backward deletion is not possible.

11b. *maaÐ nao kha ik �/vah (i) baoTa (i) p~ ilaKo.

*mã: ne kaha: ki � /vah (i) bet�a:(i) patr likhe.

Backward as well as forward deletion and pronominalization are used to express anaphora.

12. [jaao � iktaba pZ, rhI hO ] vah laD,kI maorI baihna hO.

[jo � kita:b par�h rahi: h�] vah lar�ki: meri: bahan h�. rel � book read-prog is cor girl my sister is

The girl who is reading a book is my sister.

12a. [jaao laD,kI iktaba pZ, rhI hO ] vah � maorI baihna hO.

[jo lar�ki: kita:b par�h rahi: h�] vah � meri: bahan h�. rel girl book read-prog is cor � my sister is The girl who is reading a book is my sister.

Anaphora between different sentences also uses the strategy of deletion and pronominalization. No other strategy is employed.

4.3.7. Reflexives

A reflexive pronoun occupies the same position within a clause asany other type of a pronoun. The only restriction is that theantecedent of a reflexive pronoun must be the subject of its clause. There is no other change except the selection of a dative case markeror a postposition in its use as an indirect object. Emphatic possessive pronouns do not require a co-referential antecedent.

1. vah laD,kI ]sakI ApnaI baoTI hO.vah lar�ki: uski: apni: bet �i: h�. that girl his emp/*refl That girl is his/her own.

Emphatic pronouns are sometimes completely hom*ophonous withpossessive pronouns as in (2).

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2. dulhna Apnao dUlho kao psaMd hO.dulhan apne du:lhe ko pasand h�. bride refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is The bride is liked by her bridegroom.

Sentence (2) is not passive. The conjunct verb psaMd haonaa pasand hona:to like takes a dative subject. Sentence (2), using the emphatic pronoun, can be interpreted as follows:

2a. dulhna ]sako Apnao dUlho kao psaMd hO.dulhan uske apne du:lhe ko pasand h�. bride her refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is The bride is liked by her own bridegroom.

Reflexivity is expressed by the use of agentive reflexive pronouns. This term is used to distinguish between the possessive reflexive Apnaa apna: and non-possessive reflexive Apnao Aap apne a:p �self�. The reflexive Apnao Aap apne a:p represents the main reflexive pronoun, which when followed by a postposition, has the oblique form Apnaoapne. It also functions as an emphatic pronoun as in (1). The emphatic form is also derived by adding the emphatic suffix -hIo -hi:to it. The result is Aap hIo a:p hi:. The reduplicated form Apnao Aap apnea:p also occurs as a reflexive.

3. Aimat Aap/ Apnao Aap/ Aap hI yahaÐ Aayaa.amit a:p/apne a:p/a:p hi: yahã: a:ya:.Amit self -emp here cameAmit came here by himself.

4. maOM Apnao Aap Kanaa banaata hUÐ. m�� apne a:p kha:na: bana:ta: h�:. I am refl food cook-pr am I cook my meals myself.

5. hma Apnao Aap kpD,o Qaaoto hOM. ham apne a:p kapr�e dhote h��. we refl clothes wash-ptc are We wash our clothes ourselves.

6. saumana Apnao Aap kpD,o [s~I krtI hO. suman apne a:p kapr�e istri: karti: h�.

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Suman refl clothes iron do-ptc is Suman irons the clothes herself.

There are no separate pronominal reflexive pronouns for each pronoun. The person information is obtained from the antecedent subject.

7. Aimat nao Apnao ilae / Baa[- ko ilae jaUto KrIdo.amit ne apne liye/bha:i: ke liye ju:te: khari:de:. Amit-erg refl-obl for/brother for shoes boughtAmit bought a pair of shoes for himself/his brother.

Sentence (7) shows that a non co-referential object does not take a reflexive form, but selects a non-reflexive form. The reflexivization is also controlled by dative and ergative subjects.

8. ]maa kao Apnao Aap kama krnaa psaMd hO.uma: ko apne a:p ka:m karna: pasand h�. Uma-dat refl work do-inf like is Uma likes to do (her) work herself.

9. Aimat nao Apnao Aap idna Bar Aarama ikyaa.amit ne apne a:p din bhar a:ra:m kiya:. Amit-erg refl day-whole rest didAmit rested the whole day.

Examples (8-9) can be interpreted as emphatic reflexives as well. Reflexivization can allow backward movement as well.

10. Apnao Aap Aimat nao Aarama ikyaa.apne a:p amit ne a:ra:m kiya:. refl Amit-erg rest did Amit rested himself.

In possessive structures, the possible reflexive form Apnaa apna: �self� is used in place of possessive pronouns such as the English my and your. When the possessive reflexive is used, the possessor is the same as the agent of the action or the subject. Apnaa apna: agrees with the following head NP in number and gender. Following are its forms:

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Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl Apnaa apna: Apnao apne ApnaI apni: ApnaI apni:

11. maOM Apnaa /*maora kmara saaf kr rha hUÐ.m�� apna:/*mera: kamra: sa:f kar raha: h�:. I-m sefl/*my room clean do-prog am I am cleaning my room.

12. maOM Apnao /*maoro pOsao igana rha hUÐ.m�� apne/*mere p�se gin raha: h�:. I refl /*my money count-prog am I am counting my money.

13. Aap ApnaI /*AapkI iktaba pZ, rho hOM.a:p apni:/*a:p ki: kita:b par�h rahe h��. you refl/*yours book read-prog are You are reading your book.

14. vao ApnaI /*]nakI kmaIja,oM Qaao rho hom* apni:/*unki: kami:z� dho rahe h��. he refl/*his shirts wash-prog are He is washing his shirts.

15. vah Apnaa /*]saka laaBa jaanata hom*oM.vah apna:/*uska: la:bh ja:nta: h�. he refl/*his profit know-ptc is He is aware of his benefit.

16. vao ApnaI /* ]nakI iksmat pr rao rho apni:/*unki: kismat par ro rahe h��. they refl/*selfs luck on cry-prog are They repent on their own work.

The use of non-reflexive pronouns yield well-formed sentences provided the subject and possessive pronoun are not co-referential.

17. vah (i) ]sakI (j) kmaIja, saI rha hO.vah (i) uski: (j) kami:z si: raha: h�.

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he his shirt stitch-prog isHe (i) is stitching his (j) shirt.

18. vah (i) ]nako (j) baccao pZ,a rha hO.vah (i) unke (j) bacce par�ha: raha: h�. he their children teach-prog is He(i) is teaching their (j) children.

Similar to nominative and ergative subjects, the dative subject alsocontrols the possessive reflexive Apnaa apna:. The possessivestructure also permits reduplicated reflexives.

19. vao Apnaa Apnaa kama kr rho apna: apna: ka:m kar rahe h��. they refl work do-prog are They are doing their respective jobs.

The scope of reflexivity is usually restricted to the clause in which it is used.

20. maaohna nao kha ik vah /*Apnao Aap samaya pr Aaegaa.mohan ne kaha: ki vah/*apne a:p samay par a:yega:. Mohan-erg said that he/*refl time at come-fut Mohan (i) said that he (i) would come on time.

21. maaohna nao pUCa ik ]sakI/*ApnaI p%naI kba AaegaI.mohan ne pu:cha: ki uski:/*apni: patni: kab a:yegi:.Mohan-erg asked that his/*refl wife when come-fut Mohan (i) asked when his (i) wife would come.

Sentences (20) and (21) show that reflexivization does not go down into subordinate clauses. Notice that reflexivization does not alwaysmeet clausemate constraint, as shown in (22).

22. Aimat maaohna kao Apnaa Sa~u maanata hO.amit mohan ko apna: �atru: ma:nta: h�. Amit Mohan-dat refl enemy consider-ptc is Amit (i) considers Mohan (j) his (i,j) enemy.

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Sentence (22) is ambiguous because the reflexive pronoun is co-referential with the subject of the subordinate as well as with thesubject of the subordinate clause. It has two readings.

22a. Aimat (i) maanata hO [ik maaohna Aimat (j) ka Sa~u hO].amit (i) ma:nta: h� [ki mohan amit (i) ka: �atru: h�].Amit consider-ptc is that Mohan Amit of enemy isAmit considers Mohan Amits enemy.

22b. Aimat maanata hO [ik maaohna (i) maaohna (j) ka Sa~u hO].amit ma:nta: h� [ki mohan (i) mohan (i) ka: �atru: h�. Amit consier-prog that Mohan Mohans enemy is Amit considers Mohan Mohans enemy.

Here, the reflexive pronoun cannot occur in (22a), but it can occur insentence (22b) due to its clause boundaries. It shows that the finite subordinate clause becomes finite and is raised to the object position of the matrix sentence.

Reflexive relations occur within nominalized clauses.

23. ]saka svayaM kao maarnaa zIk nahIM qaa.uska: svayam ko ma:rna: t�hi:kh nah�: tha:. his self kill-inf proper neg was His killing himself was not proper.

Reflexive relations cannot exist within an ordinary noun phrase. It is possible to have reflexive antecedents under two conditions: (i)when the logical antecedent is deleted at the surface level and (ii) when the antecedent is either generic or contextually implied.

(i) Deletion of an underlying antecedent

24. tuma Apnaa kmara saaf, krao.tum apna: kamra: sa:f karo. you refl room clean do Clean your room.

24a. Apnaa kmara saaf, krao.apna: kamra: sa:f karo. refl room clean doClean your room.

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(ii) Generic/implied antecedent

25. Apnaa samaya naYT krnaa zIk nahIM hOOo.apna: samay na�t � karna: t�hi:k nah�: h�. refl time waste do-inf good neg is It is not proper (for someone) to waste ones time.

Notice that in (25) the generic antecedent someone is implied.

4.3.8. Reciprocals

The primary way of expressing a reciprocal relationship is theexpression ek dUsaro kao ek du:sre ko �to one another�. It is the combination of the cardinal ek ek �one� and the oblique case form of the ordinal dUsara du:sra: followed by kaoo ko. Reciprocals can also be formed with Aapsa maoM a:pas m� �mutual�. The scope of reciprocity is restricted to the clause.

1. hmanao ek dUsaro ko saaqa baat kI.hamne ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:t ki:. we-erg one another-obl with talk didWe talked to each other.

2. ]nhaoMnao ek dUsaro kI bahut sahayata kI.unhõne ek du:sre ki: bahut saha:yta: ki:. they-erg one another-obl very help didThey helped each other very much.

In these sentences, the scope of the reciprocal expression does not extend to the matrix subject.

Reciprocals usually require an antecedent subject. They may be usedas a direct object, an indirect object, an adverb, or a possessiveadjective in different types of constructions.

Direct object3. vao ek dUsaro sao k[- baar imalao.

ve ek du:sre se kai: ba:r mile. they one another-obl many times lot-abl met They met each other many times.

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Indirect object 4. ]nhaoMnao ek dUsaro kao ]phar ide.

unhõne ek du:sre ko upha:r diye. they-erg one another-obl presents gaveThey gave presents to each other.

Adverb5. vao ek dUsaro pr ja,aor sao icallaa rho hOM.

ve ek du:sre par zor se cilla: rahe h��. they one another-obl with shout-prog are They are shouting at each other.

Possessive adjective6. hma ek dUsaro ko Gar nahIM jaato.

ham ek du:sre ke ghar nah�: ja:te. we one another-poss home neg go-ptc We don�t visit each others houses.

7. vao Aapsa maoM baat nahIM krto ³hOM´.ve a:pas m� ba:t nah�: karte (h��). they among themselves talk neg do-pre (are) They do not talk to each other.

The same range of reciprocals occur in nominalized clauses.

8. ]naka ek dUsaro ko Gar na jaanaa zIk nahIM hO.unka: ek du:sre ke ghar na ja:na: t�hi:k nah�: h�. their one another-gen house not go-inf good neg is Their not visiting each others homes is not right.

9. ]nakI ek dUsaro kI TaoipyaaÐ barabar nahIM hOM.unki: ek du:sre ki: t�opiyã: bara:bar nah�: h��. their one another-poss caps equal/fit neg are Each others caps do not fit them.

It is possible to have reciprocal structures without antecedent, if the antecedent is understood either syntactically, as in the case of imperative constructions, or contextually.

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10. ek dUsaro ko saaqa baatoM mat krao.ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:t� mat karo. one another-obl with talk don�t doDon�t talk to each other.

11. Aimat ko dao baoTo hOM. vao ek dUsaro ko saaqa hmaoSaa laD,to hOM. amit ke do bet�e h��. ve ek du:sre ke sa:th hame�a: lar�te h��. Amit-gen two sons are they one-another-gen with alwaysfight-prAmit has two sons. (They) always quarrel with each other.

4.3.9. Equatives

Like comparatives, there are two types of equatives: (i) syntactic and (ii) phrasal. The former type is composed of two clauses called as[tnaa itna: �this much� and ]tnaa utna: �that much� clauses. The main difference between these clauses and the comparative clause is that in equative clauses, an equative adjective or adverb is used with the subject and the standard of comparison. A comparative sentence can be transformed into an equative sentence by the deletion of the negative particle.

1. Ajaya ]tnaa caalaak hO ijatnaa ]saka Baa[- ³hO´. ajay utna: ca:la:k h� jitna: uska: bha:i: (h�). Ajay that much-cor clever as much-rel his brother Ajay is as clever as his brother.

Equative structures can also be formed by using the clause jaOsaa j�sa:as/which way and vaOsaa v�sa: like/that way.

2. jaOsaa Ajaya caalaak hO¸ ]tnaa ]saka Baa[- ³BaI´hO. j�sa: ajay ca:la:k h�, utna: uska: bha:i: (bhi:) h�. as-rel Ajay clever is that much his brother (also) isAjay is as clever as his brother.

Phrasal type equatives are formed using adjectives such as barabar bara:bar/samaana sama:n �equal�, and jaOsaa j�sa: �like�. The forms agreewith the standard of comparison in number and gender.

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3. ivajaya Apnao iptajaI ko barabar/ samaana laMbaa hOO. vijay apne pita:ji: ke bara:bar/sama:n lamba: h�. Vijay selfs father-gen like tall is Vijay is as tall as his father.

4. yao dao Baa[- ApnaI maaÐ jaOsao saIQao hom*o. ye do bha:i: apni: mã: j�se si:dhe h��. these two brothers selfs mother like simple areThese two brothers are as simple as their mother.

5. yah laD,kI ApnaI baihna jaOsaI sauMdr hO. yeh lar�ki: apni: bahan j�si: sundar h�. this girl selfs sister like beautiful isThis girl is as beautiful as her sister.

6. yao dao baihnaoM ApnaI maaÐ kI trh sauMdr hom*o. ye do bahn� apni: mã: ki: tarah sundar h��. these two sisters selfs mother like beautiful is These two sisters are as beautiful as their mother.

7. ivajaya baccao ko samaana hOO. vijay bacce ke sama:n h�. Vijay child-gen equal is Vijay is like a child.

8. ]maa Anau ko barabar laMbaI hOO. uma: anu ke bara:bar lambi: h�. Uma Anu-gen equal tall is Uma is as tall as Anu.

Notice that a copular/equational sentence employs only the plural adjectival forms of ek jaOsao ek j�se/ek jaOsaI ek jaisi: that agree with thenumber and gender of the subject of comparison.

9. Ajaya AaOr ivajaya ek jaOsao hI hOM. ajay �r vijay ek j�se hi: h��. Ajay and Vijay alike emp areAjay and Vijay are alike.

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10. ]maa AaOr Anau ek jaOsaI hOM. uma: �r anu ek j�si: h��. Uma and Anu alike are Uma and Anu are alike.

Equative adjectives may be modified by adding the particle �hI -hi:to these forms: jaOsao hI j�se hi:, jaOsaI hI j�si: hi: �alike�. The particle �hI -hi: is also added to singular forms for emphasis as well.

11. ivajaya Ajaya jaOsaa hI hO. vijay ajay j�sa: hi: h�. Vijay Ajay like emp is Vijay is like Ajay.

12. ]maa Anau jaOsaI hI hO. uma: anu j�si: hi: h�. Uma Anu alike emp isUma is like Anu.

A number of fixed adjectival phrases are used in Hindi.

13. fUla saa/ jaOsaa kaomalaphu:l sa:/j�sa: komal flower like delicateas delicate as a flower

14. p%qar saa idlapatthar sa: dil stone like heart a stone-hearted (person)

It is possible to delete the identical elements in equative structures.Deletion is always forward and not backward.

15. ]maa ]tnaI laMbaI hO ijatnaI ³laMbaI´ Anau ³hO´. uma: utni: lambi: h� jitni: (lambi:) anu (h�). Uma cor tall is rel (tall) Uma (is) Uma is as tall as Anu.

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The bracketed elements can be deleted to yield (15a).

15a. ]maa ]tnaI laMbaI hO ijatnaI Anau. uma utni: lambi: h� jitni: anu.Uma is as tall as Anu.

The backward deletion generates ungrammatical sentences, as (15b).

15b. *]maa ]tnaI � � ijatnaI laMbaI hO.

*uma: utni: � � jitni: lambi: anu h�.

Correlative equatives are formed by syntactic strategy only. Theyare formed by using the correlative marker ]tnaa utna:.

4.3.10. Comparison

Comparison is usually expressed by sentential, phrasal, and morphological strategies. Two types of comparative structures are very common, phrasal comparative structures and non-phrasal ones. Both use postpositions followed by the standards of comparison. Sentential comparison is carried out by the use of two finite clauses introduced by the relative marker ]tnaa utna: �as much as� and the correlative marker ijatnaa jitna: �that much�.

1. vah ]tnaa saIQaa nahIM hOO [ijatnaa saIQaa ]saka Baa[- hO]. vah utna: si:dha: nah�: h�[jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h�] he is not that-cor simple as much as-rel simple his brother is He is not as simple as his brother.

The relative clause can be placed at the sentence initial position as well.

1a. [ijatnaa saIQaa ]saka Baa[- hO] vah ]tnaa saIQaa nahIM hOO. [jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h�] vah utna: si:dha: nah�: h�

2. vah ijatnaa pirEama krta hO ]tnaa pOsaa nahIM kmaata.vah jitna: pari�ram karta: h� utna: p�sa: nah�: kama:ta: he as much hard work do-ptc is that much money earn-ptc neg is He doesn�t earn as much as he works.

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The relative clause can follow the correlative clause.

2a. vah ]tnaa pOsaa nahIM kmaata,¸ ijatnaa pirEama krta hO.vah utna: p�sa: nah�: kama:ta:, jitna: pari�ram karta: h�

Most of the morphological markers of comparison are borrowed from Perso-Arabic sources. They are not very productive in Hindi.

3. ]saka vahaÐ jaanaa baohtr rhogaa.uska: vahã: ja:na: behtar rahega:his there go-inf better remain-fut It is better for him to go there.

4. yah ]sako ilae badtrIna baat hO.yah uske liye badtari:n ba:t h�. this is he-for worst matter isThis is the worst thing for him.

Phrasal comparison is expressed by a postposition associated with the standard of comparison. The postposition sao se is added to the standard of comparison.

5. Aimat Anau sao laMbaa hO.amit anu: se lamba: h�. Amit Anu than tall is Amit is taller than Anu.

6. Anau ]maa sao gaaorI hO.anu uma: se gori: h�. Anu Uma than fair-complexioned isAnu is more fair-complexioned than Anu.

The phrasal comparison is also expressed by the use of the phrase ko maukabalao maoM ke muka:ble m� �in comparison with� following the standard of comparison.

7. ivajaya ko maukabalao maoM raja pZ,nao maoM kmaja,aor hO.vjay ke muka:ble m� ra:j par�hne m� kamzor h�. Vijay-gen comarison in Raj studies-obl in weak is Raj is weak in his studies in comparison to Vijay.

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8. vah poD, [sa poD, ko maukabalao maoM laMbaa nahIM hOO.vah per� is per� ke muka:ble m� lamba: nah�: h�. that tree this tree-gen comparison in tall neg is That tree is not taller than this tree.

9. ]sa laD,kI ko maukabalao maoM yah laD,kI bauiwmaana lar�ki: ke muka:ble m� yah lar�ki: buddhima:n h�. that girl-gen comparison-obl in this girl wise isThis girl is wiser than that girl.

Adjectives used in a comparison can be modified by the adverb of degree AiQak adhik more.

10. yah Gar ]sa Gar sao AiQak baD,a hOO.yeh ghar us ghar se adhik bar�a: h�. this house that-obl house comparison more big isThis house is bigger than that one.

11. vah pustk [sa pustk sao AiQak AcCI hOO.vah pustak is pustak se adhik acchi: h�. that book this book comparison more good isThat book is better than this one.

When two sentences are joined, the identical elements in the second conjunct are usually deleted. Whereas forward deletion is possible, backward deletion is not.

12. Aimat ]tnaa caalaak nahIM hO ijatnaa ³caalaak´ ]saka Baa[- hOOO.amit utna: ca:la:k nah�: h� jitna: (ca:la:k) uska: bha:i: h�. Amit that much clever neg is as much (clever) his brother is Amit is not as clever as his brother.

12a. *Aimat ]tnaa nahIM hO ijatnaa ]saka Baa[- caalaak hOOO.*amit utna: nah�: h� jitna: uska: bha:i: ca:la:k h�

The deletion of the first occurrence of caalaak ca:la:k in sentence (12a) results in the sentence being grammatically incorrect. The relative correlative markers ijatnaa jitna: ]tnaa utna: cannot be deleted under any circ*mstance.

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4.3.11. Superlatives

Superlatives are usually expressed by substituting saba sao AiQak sab se adhik �most�, savaao-tma sarvotam �best�, or hr ek maoM sao har ek m� se �out of all� for the standard of comparison. Superlative constructions are also formed by the use of kao[- dUsara koi: du:sra: �anyone else� plus the negative particle.

1. Aimat kxaa maoM saba sao AiQak bauiwmaana hOOO.amit kak�a: m� sab se adhik buddhima:n h�. Amit class in out of all more wise is Amit is wisest of all in his class.

2. ]maa saba sao AiQak toja, daOD,tI hOOO.uma: sab se adhik tez d�r�ti: h�. Uma out of all more fast run-pr is Uma runs faster than everyone else.

3. ivajaya sao catur AaOr kao[- dUsara nahIM hOOO.vijay se catur �r koi: du:sra: nah�: h�. Vijay than clever anyone else neg is No one else is more clever than Vijay.

Superlative constructions are also formed by substituting anadjective of comparison for saba sao AiQak sab se adhik.. It also serves as the standard of comparison.

4. vah baD,I sao baD,I samasyaa AasanaI sao hla krta hOOO.vah bar�i: se bar�i: samasya: a:sa:ni: se hal karta: h�. he big-f more big-f problem easy with solve do-ptc is He solves the biggest problems easily.

5. hmaaro pasa AcCo sao AcCa kpD,a yahI hOOO.hama:re pa:s acche se accha: kapr�a: yahi: h�. we-obl with good-obl than good cloth this is This is the best cloth we have.

Notice that in these constructions, the first part of the phrase is put in the oblique case as it is followed by sao se.

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4.3.12. Coordination

Sentence coordination is marked mainly by the use of the conjunction morphemes AaOr �r �and� yaa ya: �or�, and magar magar/pr par/ikMtu kintu �but�.

1. maOM idllaI gayaa AaOr maora Baa[- Aagara ³gayaa´.m�� dilli: gaya: aur mera: bha:i: agra: (gaya:). I Delhi went and my brother Agra went I went to Delhi and my brother went to Agra.

2. saaohna maaohna ko Gar gayaa magar/ pr/ ikMtu maaohnasohan mohan ke ghar gaya: magar/par/kintu mohanSohan Mohan gen home went but Mohan Gar pr nahIM qaa.ghar par nah�: tha:.home at neg was Sohan went to Mohans home, but Mohan was not there.

The conjunction morpheme AaOr �r �and� can be followed by another particle, BaI bhi: �also�.

3. maaohna kla banaarsa jaaegaa AaOr saaohna BaI ³jaaegaa´.mohan kal bana:ras ja:yega: �r sohan bhi: (ja:yega:). Mohan tomorrow Banaras go-fut and Sohan also go-fut Mohan will go to Banaras tomorrow and Mohan will also go.

The conjunction compound morphemes yaa ya: -yaa -ya: �either � or� are also used in sentence conjunctions.

4. yaa Aaja vaYaa- haogaI yaa ihmapat haogaa.ya: a:j var�a: hogi: ya: himpa:t hoga:.either today rain fall-fut or snowfall be-fut Either it rains today or it will snow.

Notice that the word order of the constituent sentences undergo a change when conjoined by the use of the conjunction morphemes yaa - yaa ya: - ya:. Sentence (4) is obtained by conjoining (4a) and (4b).

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4a. Aaja vaYaa- haogaI.a:j var�a: hogi:.It will rain today.

4b. Aaja ihmapat haogaa.a:j himpa:t hoga:.It will snow today.

And coordination is commonly expressed by the conjunction marker AaOr �r. It can join two or more sentences or phrases. This conjunction morpheme occurs before the last conjunct.

5. SaIlaa iktaba pZ, rhI hO AaOr ]maa icaT\zI ilaK rhI hO.�i:la: kita:b par�h rahi: h� �r uma: cit �t �hi: likh rahi: h�. Shiela book read-prog is and Uma letter write write-prog isShiela is reading a book and Uma is writing a letter.

6. Amar Kola rha hO¸ maaohna gaanao sauna rha hOO AaOr amar khel raha: h�, mohan ga:ne sun raha: h�, �r Amar play-prog is Mohan songs listen-prog is andSaama TI vaI doK rha hO.�a:m t�i:vi: dekh raha: h�. Sham TV see-prog isAmar is playing, Mohan is listening to songs, and Sham is watching television.

5a. *AaOr SaIlaa iktaba pZ, rhI hO ]maa p~ ilaK rhI hO.*�r �i:la: kita:b par�h rahi: h�, uma: patr likh rahi: h�.

6a. *Amar Kola rha hO AaOr maaohna gaanao sauna rha hO Saama TI vaI doK rha hOO.*amar khel raha: h� �r mohan ga:ne sun raha: h�, �a:m t �i:vi:dekh raha: h�.

The misplacement of the coordination conjunction morpheme AaOr �r renders the sentences (5a) and (6a) ungrammatical.

Coordination does not merely involve juxtaposition of two or more independent sentences. There are various syntactic and semantic constraints on the construction of coordinate structures. In general,coordinate sentences express contrast, cumulative effect, cause and effect, sequential action, and contingency. Again, the order of the

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conjuncts is interchangeable if a coordinate sentence expresses contrast or cumulative effect. Consider the following examples of various types of coordinate structures as listed above.

Contrast 7. yah laD,ka maaoTa hO AaOr vah laD,ka dubalaa.

yeh lar�ka: mot �a: h� �r vah lar�ka: dubla:.this boy fat is and that boy slimThis boy is fat and that boy is slim.

7a. vah laD,ka dubalaa hO AaOr yaah laD,ka maaoTa.vah lar�ka: dubla: h� �r yah lar �ka: mot�a:.That boy is slim and this boy is fat.

Cumulative effect8. vah raoja, vyaayaama krta hO AaOr saOr krta hO.

vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h� aur s�r karta: h�. he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk do-ptc is He exercises daily and goes for a walk (daily).

8a. vah raoja, vyaayaama krta hO AaOr saOr BaI.vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h� �r s�r bhi:. he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk also He exercises daily and goes for a walk, too.

9. vah dvaa[- Kata hO AaOr Aarama krta hO.vah dava:i: kha:ta: h� �r a:ra:m karta: h�. he medicine eat-ptc is and rest do-ptc is He is taking medicine and relaxing.

9a. vah Aarama krta hO AaOr dvaa[- Kata hO.vah a:ra:m karta: h� �r dava:i: kha:ta: h�.He is relaxing and taking medicine.

Cause and effect10. ]sanao dvaa[- Ka[- AaOr vah svasqa huAa.

usne dava:i: kha:i: �r vah svasth hua:.he-erg medicine ate and he healthy becameHe took medicine and recovered from the illness.

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10a. *vah svasqa huAa AaOr ]sanao dvaa[- Ka[-.*vah svasth hua: �r usne dava:i: kha:i:.

11. caaor kao gaaolaI lagaI AaOr vah Aaht huAa.cor ko goli: lagi: �r vah a:hat hua:.thief-dat bullet struck and he injured was The thief was hit by a bullet and he was injured.

11a. *caaor Aaht huAa AaOr ]sakao gaaolaI lagaI.*cor a:hat hua: aur usko goli: lagi:.

Sequential action 12. vah Aayaa AaOr hmaoM Gar Aanao ko ilae nyaaota idyaa.

vah a:ya: �r ham� ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya:.he came and we-obl home come-inf-obl invitation gaveHe came and invited us to visit his home.

12a. *]sanao hmaoM Gar Aanao ko ilae nyaaota idyaa AaOr Aayaa. *usne ham� ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya: �r a:ya:.

13. maaohna Gar Aayaa AaOr ]sanao drvaaja,o ka talaa Kaolaa.mohan ghar a:ya: �r usne darva:ze ka: tala: khola:. Mohan home came and he-erg door-gen lock opened Mohan came home and unlocked the door.

13a. *maaohna nao drvaaja,o ka talaa Kaolaa AaOr Gar Aayaa.*mohan ne darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola: �r ghar a:ya:.

14. tuma ek AcCI laD,kI Z,UÐZ,ao AaOr ivavaah krao.tum ek acchi: lar�ki: d �h�:d�ho �r viva:h karo. you-fem one good girl search and marriage perform You find a good girl and get married.

14a. tuma ivavaah krao AaOr ek AcCI laD,kI Z,UÐZ,ao.*tum viva:h karo �r ek acchi: lar�ki: d �h�:d �ho.

Notice that sentences (7), (8), and (9) permit the reverse order of (7a), (8a), and (9a) respectively. In sentences (10), (11), (12), (13) and (14), the reverse order of the conjuncts results in ungrammatical sentences as shown above because of the constraints on cause and

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effect, sequential action, and contingency the conjoined structures are marked for. The coordinate sentences (10-14) can be paraphrased to indicate that they are related with the subordination process as well. Consider the following sentences.

10b. vah dvaa Kakr svasqa huAa.vah dava: kha:kar swasth hua:.he medicine take-cp healthy becameHe recovered (from illness) after taking the medicine.

11b. caaor gaaolaI laganao sao Aaht huAa.cor goli: lagne se a:hat hua:. thief bullet hit-inf-obl with injured becameThe thief was injured by a bullet.

12b. ]sanao Aakr hmaoM Gar Aanao ka nyaaota idyaa.usne a:kar ham� ghar a:ne ka: nyota: diya:. he-erg come-cp us-dat home go-inf-gen invitation gave On arrival, he invited us to his home.

13b. maaohna nao Gar Aakr drvaaja,o ka talaa Kaolaa.mohan ne a:kar darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola:. Mohan-erg came-cp door-gen lock opened On arrival, Mohan unlocked the door.

14b. ek AcCI laD,kI Z,UÐZ,kr tuma ivavaah krao.ek acchi: lar�ki: d�h�:d �hkar tum viva:h karo. a good girl find-cp you marriage do-impFind a good girl and get married.

In the above sentences, cause and effect, sequential action, andcontingency are expressed without using conjunction morphemes. The paraphrases indicate that the first conjuncts of the sentences represent the adverbial complements of the second conjuncts.

Besides conjoining sentences, the coordinating conjunction marker �r can be used to coordinate nouns (subjects, direct and indirectobjects), verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

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Coordinate nominal subjects 15. laD,ka AaOr laD,kI Kola rho hOM.

lar�ka: �r lar�ki: khel rahe h��. boy and girl play-prog are A boy and a girl are playing.

Coordinate verbs16. SaIlaa nao kpD,o Qaaoe AaOr Kanaa pkayaa.

�i:la: ne kapr�e dhoye �r kha:na: paka:ya:. Shiela-erg clothes washed and food cooked Shiela washed clothes and cooked meals.

Coordinate adjectives 17. SaIlaa laMbaI AaOr gaaorI hO.

�i:la: lambi: aur gori: h�. Shiela tall and fair complexioned isShiela is tall and fair-complexioned.

Coordinate adverbials 18. maOM kla AaOr prsaaoM Gar nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.

m�� kal �r parsõ ghar nah�: ja:�:ga:.I tomorrow and day after tomorrow home neg go-fut I will not go home tomorrow nor the day after tomorrow.

The coordination of two noun phrases yields a plural noun phrase and therefore, verb agreement is affected. In the case of coordinate subjects, the verb takes a masculine plural concord, whereas, in the case of coordinate objects, the verb agrees with the nearest object.

19. maaohna AaOr SaIlaa baaja,ar gae.mohan �r �i:la: ba:za:r gaye.Mohan and Shiela market went-mpMohan and Shiela went to the market.

20. maOMnao saoba AaOr K,aobaainayaaÐ K,rIdIM.m��ne seb �r xoba:niyã: xari:di: I-erg apples-mp and apricots-fp bought-fs I bought apples and apricots.

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But coordination is expressed by the conjunction marker pr par/magarmagar/ikMtu kintu �but�. This marker is placed in the beginning of the second conjunct.

21. maaohna AQyaapk hO¸ magar vah pZ,ata nahIM.mohan adhya:pak h�, magar vah par�ha:ta: nah�:. Mohan is a teacher, but he teaches negMohan is a teacher, but he does not teach.

22. ]maa AnapZ, hO¸ pr vah baD,I bauiwmaana hO.uma: anpar�h h�, par vah bar�i: budhima:n h�. Uma is illiterate, but she very wise is Uma is illiterate, but she is very wise.

In sentence coordination, as mentioned earlier, the conjunct marker AaOr �r occurs before the second or the last conjunct. The conjunctmarker pr par precedes the second or subsequent coordinatedsentences. Among the disjunctive markers, yaa ya: can precede the first as well as subsequent disjuncts.

23. yaa vah idllaI jaaegaa¸ yaa Aagara.ya: vah dilli: ja:yega:, ya: a:gra:. either he Delhi go-fut or Agra Either he will go to Delhi or Agra.

But coordination is usually used with adjectives and adverbials.

24. maIra bauiwmaana hO pr saust hO.mi:ra: budhima:n h� par sust h�. Mira is intelligent but lazy is Mira is intelligent but lazy.

25. vah saOr krta hO pr kovala Saama kao.vah s�r karta: h� par keval �a:m ko. she walk do-ptc is but only evening-loc at He goes for a walk, but only in the evenings.

But coordination of nouns and verbs may involve a negative particle preceding or following the adversative conjuncts.

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26. Amar caalaak laD,ka hO pr saaohna nahIM hO.amar ca:la:k lar�ka: h� par sohan nah�: h�. Amar clever boy is but Sohan neg isAmar is a clever boy but Sohan is not.

27. hmanao ]sakI sauMdrta ko baaro maoM saunaa hO pr hamne uski: sundarta: ke ba:re m� suna: h� parwe-erg his beauty about heard butkBaI doKa nahIM hO.kabhi: dekha: nah�: h�. but never use him saw neg is We have heard about her beauty, but have never seen her.

28. vah p~ nahIM ilaKogaa pr TolaIf,aona ja,$r krogaa.vah patr nah�: likhega: par t�eliphon zaru:r karega:. He letter neg write-fut but telephone certainly do-futHe will not write a letter but hell certainly call.

Or coordination uses the disjunctive markers ya: or and varnaa varna:/Aiptu apitu �or� to conjoin nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.

29. maaohna yaa saaohna kpD,o isaegaa.mohan ya: sohan kapr�e siyega:. Mohan or Sohan clothes stitch-fut Mohan or Sohan will stitch the clothes.

30. ]maa Aaja baaja,ar jaaegaI yaa kla.uma: a:j ba:za:r ja:yegi: ya: kal. Uma today market go-fut or tomorrow Uma will go to the market today or tomorrow.

31. kmaIja, ko ilae naIlaa yaa laala kpD,a K,rIide.kami:z ke liye ni:la: ya: la:l kapr�a: xari:diye. shirt for blue or red cloth buyBuy blue or red cloth for the shirt.

32. ³Aap´ saoba KaeÐgao yaa kolaaÆ(a:p) seb kha:y�ge ya: kela:? (you-p) apple eat-fut or banana Would you like to take an apple or a banana?

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286 Coordination and Accompaniment

Accompaniment is expressed by the postposition saaqa sa:th with or inthe company of. It can also be expressed by the conjunction morpheme AaOr �r and.

33. saaohna AaOr maaohna Aae.sohan �r mohan a:ye.Sohan and Mohan cameSohan and Mohan came.

33a. saaohna maaohna ko saaqa Aayaa.sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya: Sohan Mohan with cameSohan came with Mohan.

Sentence (33) is an example of coordination, whereas sentence (33a) denotes accompaniment. Notice that the accompaniment uses asingular verb as in (33a). A single unit cannot be formed using accompaniment, but can be formed by using coordination. The term daonaaoM donõ �both� can, therefore, be used with coordination, but notwith accompaniment.

33b. saaohna AaOr maaohna daonaaoM Aae.sohan �r mohan donõ a:ye. Sohan and Mohan both came Sohan and Mohan both came.

33c. *saaohna maaohna ko saaqa Aayaa daonaaoM.*sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya: donõ.

The unity of the conjoined phrase cannot be distorted, and this unity is expressed only by coordination and not by accompaniment.

33d. baoTa ipta ko saaqa�a: pita: ke sa:th a:ya:.son father-obl with cameThe son came with the father.

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33e. baoTa AaOr ipta Gar�a: �r pita: ghar a:ye.The son and father came home.

33f. *baoTa Gar AaOr ipta Aae.*bet �a: ghar �r pita: a:ye.

33g. *baoTa AaOr Gar ipta Aae.*beta: �r ghar pita: a:ye.

This explains the ungrammaticalness of sentences (33f) and (33g). The commutative postposition ko saaqa ke sa:th follows the noun of accompaniment. It is possible to form coordinate sentences using the co-ordinate conjunction AaOr �r the comitative postposition saaqa sa:thin one of the conjuncts.

34. AjaIt AaOr maaohna Amar ko saaqa jaaeÐgao. aji:t �r mohan amar ke sa:th ja:y�ge. Ajit and Mohan Amar-obl with go-futAjit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

34a. Am,ar ko saaqa AjaIt AaOr maaohna jaaeÐgao. amar ke sa:th aji:t �r mohan ja:y�ge. Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar. Structural Constraints

There are various structural constraints in coordination. In general,members in the same class can be conjoined but not those that belong to different classes.

Adjective and noun 35. *vah sauMdr AaOr laD,kI hO.

*vah sundar �r lar�ki: h�.she is beautiful and girl.

35a. vah sauMdr AaOr bauiwmaana laD,kI hO. vah sundar �r budhima:n lar�ki: h�. she beautiful and intelligent girl isShe is a beautiful and an intelligent girl.

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Adjective and adverb 36. *yah kpD,a AcCa AaOr kla hO.

*yeh kapr�a: accha: �r kal h�. this cloth good and yesterday is

36a. yah kpD,a AcCa AaOr sasta hO. yeh kapr�a: accha: �r sasta: h�. this cloth good and inexpensive is This cloth is good and inexpensive.

As exemplified above in sentences (35) and (36), it is not possible to conjoin adjectives and nouns, nor adjectives and adverbs. Other types of constraints are indicated below.

Present and past participles and adjectives can be conjoined using coordinate conjunction morphemes.

37. Aimat pZ,a-ilaKa AaOr SarIf laD,ka hO. Amit par�ha: - likha: �r �ari:ph lar�ka: h�. Amit educated and gentle boy isAmit is an educated and a gentle boy.

Similarly, it is possible to conjoin the conjuncts with adverbial construction and an adjective phrase.

38. maora ima~ Sahr maoM rhta hO AaOr bahut caalaak hO. mera: mitr �ahar m� rahta: h� �r bahut ca:la:k h�. my friend city in live-ptc is and very clever is My friend lives in the city and is clever.

A relative clause and an adjective phrase cannot be conjoined.

38a. *jaao Sahr maoM rhta hO AaOr bahut caalaak ima~ hO. *jo �ahar m� rahta: h� aur bahut ca:la:k mitr h�. who city-abl is live-pr is and clever friend tomorrow

Nouns and nominalized constructions can be conjoined, provided the semantic and pragmatic conditions are met.

39. ]sao ]pnyaasa pZ,naa AaOr naaTk doKnaa psaMd hO. use upanya:s par �hna: �r na:t�ak dekhna: pasand h�.

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he-dat novel read-inf and play watch-inf like is He likes to read novels and watch plays.

40. maOMnao ]sao AaOr ]sako Gar kao sapnao maoM doKa.m��ne use �r uske ghar ko sapne m� dekha:. I-erg he-obl and his house-dat dream-obl in saw I saw him and his house in the dream.

It is possible to coordinate related adverbials in a coordinated structure.

41. vah hÐsato - hÐsato AaOr jaldI hr ek kama krta hO.vah hãste - hãste �r jaldi: har ek ka:m karta: h�. he laugh-ptc and quickly every work do-ptc is He gives his opinion smilingly and quickly.

Time adverbials and manner adverbials cannot be conjoined.

42. *vah kla raoyaa AaOr ja,aor-ja,aor sao.*vah kal roya: �r zor - zor sehe yesterday wept and loudly

Active and passive verbs can be coordinated provided they areappropriate in a pragmatic situation. In Hindi, passive constructionscan mean capability as well.

43. Anau nao saoba KrIdo AaOr ]sasao Kae nahIM gae.anu ne seb xari:de aur usse kha:ye nah�: gaye. Anu-erg apples bought and she-pass eat-pass neg aux-pass Anu bought apples and she was not able to eat.

44. maOMnao yah kama ikyaa AaOr ]sasao nahIM ikyaa gayaa.m��ne yeh ka:m kiya: �r usse nah�: kiya: gaya:.I-erg this work did and he-pass neg do-pa went-passI did this work and it could not be done by him.

Simple verbs can be conjoined with infinitives in a coordinate structure.

45. maOMnao yah naavala pZ,a AaOr [saoo pZ,naa Aasaana hO nahIM.m��ne yeh na:val par�ha: �r ise par�hna: a:sa:n h� nah�:.

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I-erg this novel read and this-obl read-inf easy neg isI read this novel and it is not easy to read.

It is also possible to conjoin different types of verbs.

46. maora hÐsanaa AaOr hÐsaanaa iksaI kao psaMd nahIM Aayaa.mera: hãsna: �r hãsa:na: kisi: ko pasand nah�: a:ya:. my laugh-inf and laugh-caus anyone-dat like neg came My laughing and making others laugh was not liked byanyone.

47. gaussaa Aanaa AaOr gaussaa p`kT krnaa AcCa nahIM.gussa: a:na: �r gussa: prakat � karna: accha: nah�:. anger come-inf and anger express do-inf good neg It is not good to be angry nor to express ones anger.

When two sentences are conjoined, any number of elements, including verbs, can be deleted under identity. The deletion can be both forward as well as backward. However, backward deletion is less frequent than forward deletion.

48. Aimat nao iktaba KrIdI AaOr rjat nao kmaIja,.amit ne kita:b xari:di: �r rajat ne kami:z. Amit-erg book bought and Rajat-erg shirt Amit bought a book and Rajat a shirt.

48a. Aimat nao iktaba � AaOr rjat nao kmaIja, KrIdI.

amit-ne kita:b � �r rajat ne kami:z xari:di:. Amit-erg book � and Rajat-erg shirt bought

Amit bought a book and Rajat bought a shirt.

The coordinating morpheme AaOr �r conjoins sentences and parts of sentences of similar syntactic and semantic structure. Due to such constraints, the following pairs of sentences cannot be conjoined by merely deleting the identical elements.

49a. mauJao caaya psaMd hO.mujhe ca:y pasand h�. I-obl tea like is I like tea.

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49b. mauJao kama krnaa psaMd hO.mujhe ka:m karna: pasand h�. I-obl work do-inf like is I like to do work.

49c. *mauJao caaya AaOr kama krnaa psaMd hO.*mujhe ca:y �r ka:m karna: pasand h�.

50a. Aimat AvaSya Aaegaa.amit ava�y a:yega: Amit definitely come-fut Amit will definitely come.

50b. Aimat maaohna ko saaqa Aaegaa.amit mohan ke sa:th a:yega:. Amit Mohan with come-fut Amit will come with Mohan.

50c. *Aimat AvaSya Aaegaa AaOr maaohna ko saaqa. *amit ava�y a:yega: aur mohan ke sa:th

51a. SaIlaa baImaar hO.�i:la: bi:ma:r h�. Shiela sick is Shiela is sick.

51b. SaIlaa Gar pr hO.�i:la: ghar par h�. Shiela home at is Shiela is at home.

51c. *SaIlaa baImaar hO AaOr Gar pr.*�i:la: bi:ma:r h� �r ghar par.

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All major sentence constituents, including nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, can be omitted under identity.

Omission of subject/object 52. Aimat nao iktaba KrIdI AaOr � pZ,I.

amit-ne kita:b xari:di: �r � par�hi:.Amit-erg book bought and � read Amit brought a book and read.

Omission of adjective/verb53. ]sako pasa naIlaI kmaIja, hO AaOr maoro pasa � TaopI.

uske pa:s ni:li: kami:z h� �r mere pass � t�opi:.he-obl blue shirt is and I-poss-obl � cap He has a blue shirt and I have a blue cap.

Omission of adverb/verb54. saaohna kla Apnao Gar gayaa AaOr maaohna � Sahr �.

sohan kal apne ghar gaya: �r mohan � �ahar �Sohan yesterday own village went and Mohan citySohan went to his village yesterday and Amar went to the city.

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5. Lexicon

Here we list useful classified English-Hindi vocabulary for quick reference. The vocabulary is listed under different sections: (1)animals, birds, and insects; (2) flowers, fruits, and vegetables; (3) jewels, metals, and minerals; (4) miscellaneous items; (5) body parts; (6) occupations; (7) kinship terms; (8) adjectives; (9) verbs; (10) adverbs; (11) conjunctions; and (12) pronouns.

5.1. Animals, Birds, and Insects

animal jaanavar ja:nvar / pa�u ant caIMTI c�:t �i: bear BaalaU bha:lu:bedbug KTmala khat �malbird icaiD,yaa / pxaI ci��iya: / pak�i: buffalo BaoOMsa bh��s bullock baOla b�l butterfly ittlaI titli: camel }ÐT �:t �cat iballaI billi:co*ck / rooster maugaa- murga:co*ckroach itlacaT\Ta tilcat�t �a:cow gaaya ga:y crow kaOAa k�a: cuckoo kaoyala ko:yaldeer ihrNa hiran � dog ku<aa kutta:donkey gaQaa gadha: eagle baaja ba:j�elephant haqaI ha:thi:fish maClaI machli:�fly ma@KI makkhi: fox laaomaD,I lo:m��i: frog maoMZ,k m�d �hak goat bakrI bakri: hare K,rgaaoSa xargo� hen maugaI- murgi:horse GaaoD,a gho:��a:insect kID,a ki:��a:

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jackal gaIdD, gi:da��kite caIla ci:l leopard toMduAa tendua: lion Saor �erlizard iCpklaI chipkali:�mare GaaoD,I gho��i: monkey baMdr bandar mule Kccar khaccarowl ]llaU ullu:peaco*ck maaor mo:rpig sauAr suar pigeon kbaUtr kabu:tar rat caUha cu:ha: scorpion ibacCU bicchu: sheep BaoD, bhe:��snake saaÐp sã:p sparrow gaaOiryaa g�r�ya:squirrel igalahrI gilhari:swan hMsa hans tiger baaGa ba:ghwolf BaoiD,yaa bhe��iya:worm kID,a ki:��a:

5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables

almond baadama ba:da:m apple saoba se:b apricot K,aobaanaI xo:ba:ni:banana kolaa ke:la: beet root caukMdr cukandar betel leaf pana pa:n betel nut sauparI supa:ri: bitter gourd krolaa kare:la:black plum AalaU bauKara a:lu: buxa:ra:brinjal / eggplant baOMgana b� �gancabbage baMdgaaobaI bandgo:bi:carrot gaajar ga:jar cashew nut kajaU ka:ju:cauliflower fUlagaaobaI phu:lgo:bi:coconut naairyala na:riyal

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coriander Qainayaa dhaniya:cucumber (small) KIra khi:ra: custard apple SarIfa �ari:pha: date KjaUr khaju:rfig AMjaIr anji:r garlic lahsauna lahsun ginger Adrk adrak gourd laaOkI l�ki: grape AMgaUr angu:rgreen chilie hrI imaca- hari: mirc groundnut maUÐgaflaI mu �:gphali: guava Ama$d amru:d jackfruit kThla kat�hal jasmine camaolaI came:li: lady�s finger ibaMDI bind�i: lemon naIbaU ni:bu:lichee laIcaI li:ci: lotus kmala kamal mango Aama a:m marigold gaoMda g�da: (musk)melon KrbaUj,aa kharbu:za: mint pudInaa pudi:na:mulberry SahtUt �ahtu:t onion Pyaaj,a pya:z orange naarÐgaI na:rangi: papaya ppIta papi:ta: pea maTr mat�arpeanut maUÐgaflaI m�:gphali: pear naaSapatI na:�pa:ti: pineapple Anaanaasa ananna:s pistachio nut ipsta pista: plum AalaU bauKara a:lu: buxa:ra:pumpkin kd\dU kaddu: pomegranate Anaar ana:r potato AalaU a:lu: raisin (small) ikSaimaSa ki�mi� raisin (large) maunaka munakka: radish maUlaI mu:li: raspberry rsabarI rasbhari: spinach palak pa:lak sugar cane gannaa ganna:

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sweet lime maaOsamaI m�sami: sweet potato SakrkMd �akarkand tomato TmaaTr t �ama:t�arturnip Salagama �algam walnut AKraoT akhro:t�watermelon trbaUja,a tarbu:za:

5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals

aluminum AlamaUinayama almu:niyam brass pItla pi:tal bronze kaMsaa kã:sa:copper taÐbaa tã:ba: diamond hIra hi:ra: emerald pnnaa panna: gem maiNa / r%na man �i / ratn glass kaÐca kã:c gold saaonaa so:na: iron laaoha lo:ha:jewel javaahr java:har mercury para pa:ra: nickel inakla nikal pearl maaotI mo:ti:sapphire naIlama ni:lam silver caaÐdI cã:di: steel [spat ispa:t sulfur gaMQak gandhaktin TIna t �i:n topaz pUKraja pukhra:jzinc jasta jasta:

5.4. Miscellaneous Items

accident duGa-Tnaa durghat�na: acquaintance pircaya paricay admiration p`SaMsaa / tarIf, pra�ansa: / ta:ri:f age AayaU / ]ma` a:yu:/umarair hvaa hava: answer ]%tr uttar / java:b application p`aqa-naa p~ pra:rthana: patr area [laaka ila:ka:

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ashes raK ra:kh autumn ptJaD, patjha��baking pan tvaa tava: bark (of tree) iClka chilka: barley jaaO j�basket TaokrI t �o:kri:bath snaana sna:n behavior bat-ava barta:v bell GaMTa ghant�a:birthday janma idna janm-din boat naava na:v bread raoTI rot �i: bridge pula pulcenter koMd` kendrcharcoal kaoyalaa koyla:child baccaa bacca:church igarjaa girja: city Sahr �aharclass dja-a darja: cleanliness safa[- safa:i:cloud baadla ba:dal cold sadI- / ja,ukama sardi: / zuka:m comfort Aarama a:ra:mcommittee kmaoTI kamet �i:community samaaja sama:jcomplaint iSakayat �ika:yat cooked rice Baat bha:t corn ma@kI makki: cough KaÐsaI khã:si: country doSa de� court of law Adalat ada:latcup Pyaalaa pya:la: dance naaca na:c day idna dindifficulty mauiSkla mu�kil dispensary icaik%saalaya cikitsa:lay district ija,laa zila:dust QaUla dhu:learth pRqvaI prathvi:earthen oven caUlha cuhla: education iSaxaa / talaIma �ik�a: / ta:li:m

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egg AMD,a ãd �a: entertainment manaaorMjana manoranjan enquiry pUCtaC pu:chta:ch evening Saama �a:m exhibition p`dSa-naI / naumaa[Sa pradar�ani: / numa:i�fare ikrayaa / BaaD,a kira:ya: / bha:r�a: fatigue qakana thaka:n favor kRpa kripa: fear Dr d �ar feast davat da:vat feather pMK pankhfever jvar / bauKar jvar / buxa:rfrying pan kD,a[- kar�a:i: fire Aaga a:g flag JaMDa jhãd �a: fog kuhra/QaÐuMQa kuhra: / dh�dhforeigner ivadoSaI vide�i: forest jaMgala / vana jangal / van fountain fvvaara favva:ra: fun maja,ak / tmaaSaa maza:k / tama:�a:gift ]phar upha:rgrass Gaasa gha:s harbor baMdrgaah bandarga:hhealth svaasqya swasthyheat gamaI- garmi: help madd / sahayata madad / saha:yita: hobby SaaOk ��k holiday Cu+I chut�t �i:horn saIMga s�:g hospital Asptala aspata:lhunger BaUK bhu:khice baf- barf information saUcanaa su:cna: intoxication naSaa na�a:introduction pircaya paricay island TapU / WIp t �a:pu: / dvi:p joke maja,ak maza:k journey yaa~a safr ya:tra: / safar kidney beans rajamaah ra:jma:hkindness kRpa / maohrbaanaI meharba:ni: / kripa: ladle klaCI kalchi:

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lane galaI gali: language BaaYaa / ja,baana bha:�a: / zaba:n leaf p<aa patta: leave Cu+I chut�t �i:lentil dala da:l lid Z@kna d �hakkanlie JaUz jhu: t�h literature saaih%ya / Adba sa:hity / adab love Pyaar pya:r man AadmaI a:dmi: marriage ivavaah / SaadI viva:h / �a:di:meat maaÐsa mã:smessage saMdoSa sande� memorial smaark sma:rak memory yaad ya:dmile maIla mi:l mistake galtI galti: month mahInaa mahi:na: mortar AaoKlaI okhli:moon caaÐMd cã:d moonlight caaÐMdnaI cã:dni: morning saubah subah mosque masaijad masjidmountain phaD, paha:�� museum AjaayabaGar aja:yabgharmusic saMgaIt sangi:t name naama na:m news samaacaar / K,bar sama:ca:r / xabar newspaper samaacaarp~ / AK,baar sama:ca:rpatr / axba:r night rat ra:t noon daophr dopaharnorth ]<ar uttar paddy Qaana¸ SaalaI dha:n / �a:li:pain dd- dard person vyai@t vyakti: pitcher maTka mat�ka: pity dyaa daya:plate PlaoT palet�place jagah jagah potato AalaU a:lu: police puilasa pulis

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police station qaanaa tha:na: praise p`SaMsaa / tarIf pra�ansa: / ta:ri:f prayer p`aqa-naa / duAa pra:rthana: / dua: present ]phar upha:rprice kImat ki:matprocession jalaUsa jalu:s program kaya-k`ma ka:ryakram port baMdrgaah bandarga:hquarrel JagaD,a jhagr�a: question p`Sna / savaala pra�an / sava:l rain vaYaa- / baairSa var�a: / ba:ri� rainy season barsaat barsa:tregret Kod / Afsaaosa khed / afsos religion Qama- dharm rent ikrayaa kira:ya:repair marmmat marmmatreply ]<ar / javaaba uttar / java:b request inavaodna / p`aqa-naa pra:rthana: rest Aarama a:ra:mrice caavala ca:valrice pudding KIr khi:rriver diryaa dariya:road pqa / rasta path / ra:sta: rock ca+ana cat�t �a:nroot jaD, ja��rope rsaI rasi:salt namak namaksand rot ret sandal caMdna candan sea samaud` /samaMdr samudr / samandar seed baIja bi:jship jahaja, jaha:z show tmaaSaa tama:�a:sickle d`aMtI drã:ti: sky AakaSa / Aasamaana a:ka:� / a:sma:n smoke QauAaM dhuã:snow baf- barf society samaaja sama:jsorrow Kod / duK khed / dukhsouth dixaNa dak�in �spit qaUk thu:k

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spoon cammaca cammac spring vasaMt / bahar vasant / baha:r star tara tara:stick saaoTI so:t �i: stone p%qar patthar storm AaÐQaI ã:dhi:sugar caInaI ci:ni: summer gamaI- garmi: sun saUya- / saUrja su:ry / su:raj sunshine QaUp dhu:ptail duma dum temple maMidr mandir tent tmbaU tambu: thanks Qanyavaad / Sauik`yaa dhanyava:d / �ukriya: thief caaor cor thirst Pyaasa pya:s time samaya samay tobacco tmbaakU tamba:ku: town nagar nagar / �ahartranslation Anauvaad anuva:dtravel yaa~a ya:tra: / safar traveler yaa~I / mausaaifr ya:tri: / musa:fir treatment [laaja ila:j trouble kYT / tklaIf ka�t / takli:f truth saca sacvalley vaadI va:di:value maUlya / kImat mu:ly / ki:mat vessel bat-na bartan village ga`ama / gaaÐva gra:m / ga:�visitor dSa-k dar�ak vomit ]lTI ult�i:wash Qaulaa[- dhula:i:water panaI pa:ni:waterfall Jarnaa jharna: week saPtah / hFta sapta:h / hafta: wealth samapit / daOlat sampati / d�lat weight Baar / vaja,na bha:r / vazan west piScama pa�cim wheat gaohUÐ geh�: wind hvaa hava: winter sadI- / jaaD,a sardi: / ja:r�a:

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woman AaOrt �ratworld saMsaar sansa:r / duniya:worship pUjaa pu:ja:wood lakD,I lak��i: year saala salzoo icaiD,yaaGar cir�iya:ghar

5.5. Body Parts

arm baaÐh bã:h armpit bagala bagal beard daZ,I da:��hi: body SarIr �ari:rbone hD\D,I had �d�i: brain idmaaga / maistSak dima:g / masti�k breast stna stan cheek gaala ga:l chest CaatI cha:ti: chin zaoD,I t �ho��i: ear kana ka:n elbow kaohnaI kohni:eye AaÐK ã:kh eyeball putlaI putli: eyebrow BaaOM bh�)eyelid plak palak face caohra cehra:finger ]ÐgalaI �gli:fist mauT\zI mut�t �hi: flesh maaÐsa / gaaoSt mã:s / go:sht foot pOr p�r forehead maaqaa ma:tha:gum jabaD,a jab��a: hand haqa ha:th (left) hand baayaaÐ haqa ba:yã: ha:th (right) hand dayaaMÐ haqa da:yã: ha:th hair baala ba:l head isar sir heart )dya / idla hriday / dilheel eD,I e��i:intestines AntiDyaaÐ antar�iyã:

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knee GauTnaa ghut�na: leg TaMÐga t �ã:g lips AaoMz õt�h liver klaojaI kale:ji: lung fofD,a phe:ph��a:mouth mauMÐh m�h mustaches maUC mu:chnail naaKUna na:khu:nnavel naaBaI na:bhi:neck gad-na gardan nose naak na:k palate talaU ta:lu: palm hqaolaI hathe:li: rib psalaI pasli: shoulder kMQaa kandha:skin cama- carm sole of foot tlavaa talva: stomach poT pet�teeth daÐt dã:t thigh jaaÐGa jã:gh throat galaa gala: thumb AÐgaUza ãgu:t�ha: tongue jaIba / ja,baana ji:b / zaba:n vein nasa nas waist kmar kamar wrist klaa[- kala:i:

5.6. Occupations

accountant laoKakar le:kha:ka:r advocate vakIla vaki:lactor AiBanaota abhine:ta: actress AiBanao~I abhine:tri:artist klaakar / Adakar kala:ka:r / ada:ka:r artisan karIgar ka:ri:gar barber naa[- na:i: blacksmith lauhar luha:r boatman mallaah malla:hcarpenter baZ,[- bar�hai: cartman gaaD,Ivaana ga:r�i:va:n clerk ilaipk lipik / klark

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cobbler maaocaI mo:chi: confectioner hlavaa[- halwa:i:contractor zokodar t �he:keda:r cook rsaao[yaa raso:iya: craftsman karIgar ka:ri:gar dentist dMt icaik%sak dant-chikitsak doctor Da@Tr d �a:kt�ar driver D,/a[var d �r�var editor sampadk sampa:dakemployee kma-caarI karamca:ri:engineer [MjaIinayar inji:niyarfarmer iksaana kisa:n gatekeeper drbaana darba:n gardener maalaI ma:li:goldsmith saunaar suna:r grocer pMsaarI pansa:ri: hawker forIvaalaa phe:ri:va:la: journalist p~kar patraka:r judge nyaayaaQaISa nya:ya:dhi:�:laborer maja,dUr mazdu:r lawyer vakIla vaki:lmaidservant naaOkranaI n�kara:ni: mason raja ra:j merchant vyaaparI vya:pa:ri: minister maM~I mantri: musician gaayak / gaaiyaka ga:yak / ga:yika: nurse nasa- nars officer AiQakarI adhika:ri: optician eonaksaaja, �naksa:z peon caprasaI capra:si:photographer faoTaoga`afr pho:t�o:gra:phar poet kiva kavi police sub-inspector qaanaodar tha:ne:da:r postman Daikyaa d �a:kiya: prime minister p`Qaana maM~I pradha:n mantri: printer maudk- mudrakporter kulaI kuli:proprietor maailak ma:lik publisher p`kaSak praka:�ak salesman ivak`ota vikre:ta: scientist vaO&ainak v�gya:nik

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sculptor iSalpI �ilpi: servant naaOOkr n�kar shopkeeper dukanadar duka:nda:rsinger gaayak /gaaiyaka ga:yak / ga:yika: soldier isapahI sipa:hi: student ivaVaqaI- vidya:rthi:supervisor pirvaoxak paryave:k�ak: sweet-seller hlavaa[- halva:i: tailor dja,I- darzi: teacher AVapk / iSaxak adhya:pak / �ik�ak translator Anauvaadk anuva:dakwasherman QaaobaI dho:bi:watchmaker GaD,Isaaja, gha��i:sa:z:watchman caaOkIdar c�ki:da:r writer laoKk le:khak (petition) writer Aja,I- navaIsa arzi: navi:s

5.7. Kinship Terms

adopted son d<k pu~ dattak putradopted daughter d<k pu~I dattak putri:brother Baa[- bha:i: brother, elder baD,a Baa[- ba:��a: bha:i: brother, younger CaoTa Baa[- cho:t�a bha:i:brother�s daughter BatIjaI bhati:ji:brother�s son BatIjaa bati:ja: brother�s wife BaaBaI bha:bhi:daughter baoTI be:t�i: daughter�s husband javaaM[- javã:i: father ipta pita: father�s brother caacaa ca:ca:father�s brother�s wife caacaI ca:ci:father�s father dada da:da: father�s father�s brother cacaora dada cacera: da:da:father�s father�s brother�s wife cacaorI dadI cace:ri: da:di:father�s mother dadI da:di:father�s sister fUfI phu:phi:father�s sister�s husband fUfa, phu:pha: father�s brother�s son cacaora Baa[- ca:cera: bha:i: father�s sister�s son fufora Baa[- phuphera: bha:i: father�s brother�s daughter cacaorI bahna ca:ceri: bahan:

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father�s sister�s daughter fuforI bahna phupheri: bahan husband pit pa:ti husband�s brother dovar de:var: husband�s brother�s wife dovaranaI dev:ra:ni: husband�s father sasaur sasurhusband�s mother saasa sa:shusband�s sister nanad nanad mother maata / maaÐ ma:ta: / mã:mother�s brother maamaa ma:ma:mother�s sister maasaI ma:si:mother�s sister�s husband maaOsaa m�:sa:mother�s father�s brother cacaora naanaa cacera: na:na:mother�s father�s brother�s wife cacaorI naanaI caceri: na:ni: mother�s father naanaa na:na: mother�s mother naanaI na:ni:father�s father�s father pD,dada pa�� da:da: father�s father�s mother pD,dadI pa�� da:di: mother�s father�s father pD,naanaa pa�� na:na: mother�s brother�s son mamaora Baa[- mam:era: bha:i: mother�s brother�s daughter mamaorI bahna mam:eri: bahan: mother�s sister�s daughter maaOsaorI bahna m�s:eri: bahan mother�s sister�s son maaOsaora Baa[- m�sera: bha:i: sister bahna bahan sister, elder baD,I bahna ba��i: bahan sister, younger CaoTI bahna chot�i: ba:han son baoTa / pu~ be:t�a: / putrsister�s son BaaMÐjaa bhã:ja: sister�s daughter BaaMÐjaI bhã:ji:sister�s husband jaIjaa / bahnaao[- ji:ja: / bahno:i: son�s son paota pota: son�s daughter paotI poti:wife p%naI pat:ni: / bi:vi:wife�s brother saalaa sa:la:wife�s father sasaur sasurwife�s mother saasa sa:swife�s sister saalaI sa:li: son�s wife bahU ba:hu:stepfather saaOtolaa baap s�tela: ba:p stepmother saaOtolaI maaÐ s�teli: mã:stepbrother saaOtolaa Baa[- s�tela: bha:i:

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stepsister saaOtlaI bahna s�teli: bahan

5.8. Adjectives

accurate sahI / zIk sahi: / t�hi:k airy hvadar hava:da:r ancient AtIk / puranaa ati:k / pura:na: bad baura / K,raba bura: / xara:bbeautiful sauMdr / K,UbasaUrt sundar / khu:bsu:rat big baD,a / ivaSaala ba��a: / visha:l bitter kD,vaa ka��va: black kalaa ka:la: blue naIlaa ni:la: broad caaOD,a c���a: brown BaUra bhu:ra:cheap sasta saasta:clean saaf sa:fclear spYT spa�t �clever haoiSayaar ho:�iya:r / catur closed baMd bandcoarse maaoTa mo:t �a:cold zMD,a t �hãd �a: complete pUra pu:ra: correct sahI sahi: costly mahÐgaa mahãga: cunning caalaak ca:la:kdear Pyaara pya:ra: defective K,raba xara:b dense Ganaa ghana: difficult kizna / mauiSkla kat�hin / mu�kil direct saIQaa si:dha: dirty gaMda gãda: dry saUKa su:kha: each hr ek / p`%yaok har ek / pratyek easy Aasaana a:sa:neducated pZ,a ilaKa pa��ha:-likha: elder jyaoYT / baD,a jye: �t� / ba��a: empty K,alaI xa:li: entire saara sa:ra:every p`%yak pratye:k

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fast toja / tIva`, te:z / ti:vr fat maaoTa mo:t �a:few kma / kuC kam / kuch filthy gaMda gãda: fine baarIk / zIk ba:ri:k / t�hi:k final Aintma / AaK,rI antim / a:xiri:foolish maUK- mu:rkh / be:vaku:f foreign ivadoSaI vide:�i free svatM~ / Aaja,ad svatantr / a:za:d fresh taja,a ta:za:golden saunahlaa / saunahrI sunhala: / sunhari: good AcCa acchha:greasy icaknaa cikna: great baD,a / mahana ba��a: / maha:ngreen hra hara: handsome sauMdr / K,UbasaUrt s�dar / khu:bsu:rat hard sa#t / maauiSkla saxt: / mu�kilheavy BaarI bha:ri: high }Ðcaa �:ca: hot garma garam important AavaSyak / ja,$rI xa:v�ak / zaru:ri: incomplete AQaUra adhu:ra: independent svatM~ / Aaja,ad savatantr / a:za:d inferior GaiTyaa ghat �iya:intelligent haoiSayaar / danaa ho�iya:r / da:na: large baD,a ba��a:last Aintma / AaK,rI antim / a:xiri:left baayaaÐM ba:ya�: lengthy laMbaa lamba:less kma kam light hlka halka: little ja,ra / qaaoD,a zara: / thor�a: lonely Akolaa ake:la:long laMbaa lamba:loose Z,Ilaa d �hi:la:low naIcaa ni:ca: many k[- / Anaok kai: / ane:k modern AaQauinak a:dhunikmore AaOr /AiQak �r / adhikmuch bahut /AiQak / j,yaada bahut / adhik / zya:da

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new nayaa naya:old puranaa pura:na: open Kulaa khula:opposite ]lTa ult�a: orange naarMgaI na:rangi: peculiar AjaIba / ivaica~ aji:b / vicitrpermanent p@ka / sqaa[- pakka: / stha:i: pink gaulaabaI gula:bi:poor garIba gari:b proper ]icat ucit pungent tIKa ti:kha:pure Saud\Qa �uddhraw kccaa kacca:red laala la:l remaining baakI ba:ki:rich AmaIr ami:r right sahI / zIk sahi: / t�hi:k ripe p@ka pakka: robust tgaD,a tag��a:round gaaola go:lsalty namakIna namki:n several k[- / Anaok kai: / ane:k sharp toja, te:z short CaoTa cho:t�a: simple saIQaa / Aasaana si:dha: / a:sa:n single Akolaa ake:laslow QaImaa dhi:ma:small CaoTa chot�a: smart haoiSayaar ho:�iya:r smooth icaknaa cikna: soft maulaayama / nama- mula:yam / naram sour K+a khat �t �a: special ivaSaoYa / K,asa vi�e� / xa:sspicy caTpTa cat�pat �a:stale baasaI ba:si: stopped baMd bandstraight saIQaa si:dha: strange AjaIba / ivaica~ aji:b / vicitrstrong tgaD,a / maja,baUt tag��a: / mazbu:t stupid maUK- / baovakUf, mu:rkh / bevaku:fsuitable ]icat ucit

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sweet maIza mi:t�ha: tall laMbaa lamba:tasteless fIka phi:ka:temporary Asqaa[- astha:i: tender kaomala ko:mal thick maaoTa mo:t �a:thin ptlaa patla: total kula kultrue sahI / saccaa sahi: / sacca:unripe kccaa kacca:vacant K,alaI xa:li: violet baOMganaI b� �gani:warm gaunagaunaa gunguna:weak kmaja,aor kamzor wet gaIlaa gi:la: wide caaOD,a c���a: white saf,od / Svaot safe:d / �vetwhole saara sa:ra:wounded Aaht / Gaayala a:hat / gha:yal wrong galat galat yellow pIlaa pi:la: young(er) CaoTa cho:t�a:

5.9. Verbs

to accept svaaIkar krnaa svi:ka:r karna: to admit maananaa / daiK,la krnaa ma:nna: / da:xil karna:to (be) alive jaInaa ji:na: to ask for maaÐganaa mã:gna: to bathe naahnaa naha:na: to be haonaa ho:na:to bear sahnaa sahna: to beat pITnaa pi:t�na: to become bananaa banna: to bite kaTnaa ka:t�na: to boil ]vaalanaa uba:lna: to (be) born pOda haonaa p�da: ho:na: to break taoD,naa to:��na to bring laanaa la:na: to bring up paalanaa pa:lna to (be) broken TUTnaa t �u:t�na:

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to build banaanaa / inama-aNa krnaa bana:na: / nirma:n� karna: to burn jalaanaa jala:na:to buy K,rIdnaa xari:dna: to call baulaanaa bula:na: to catch pkD,naa paka��na: to celebrate manaanaa mana:na:to chew cabaanaa caba:na:to cleanse saaf krnaa sa:f karna:to climb caZ,naa ca��hna: to come Aanaa a:na: to come out inaklanaa nikalna: to conceal iCpanaa chipa:na: to conquer jaItnaa ji:tna: to cook pkaanaa / Kanaa banaanaa paka:na: / kha:na: bana:na: to cool zMD,a krnaa t �hãd �a: karna: to cough KaÐsanaa khã:sna to count igananaa ginna:to cover Z,knaa d �hakna:to cry raonaa ro:na: to cry out icallaanaa cilla:na: to cut kaTnaa ka:t�na: to decorate sajaanaa saja:na:to defeat hranaa hara:na to deposit jamaa krnaa jama: karna:to desire caahnaa ca:hna: to die marnaa marna:to distribute baaÐTnaa bã:t�na: to divide Baaga krnaa / baaÐTnaa bha:g karna: / bã:t�na: to do krnaa karna: to drag GasaITnaa ghasi:t�na: to draw KIMcanaa kh�:cna: to drink pInaa pi:na:to drive calaanaa cala:na:to drive away inaklanaa nika:lna:to earn kmaanaa kama:na: to eat Kanaa kha:na: to endure sahnaa / bardaSt krnaa sahna: / barda:�t karna: to enquire pUCtaC krnaa pu:chta:ch karna: to entrust saaOMpnaa s��pna: to envy [-Yaa- krnaa i:r�a: karna: to escape bacanaa bacna:

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to examine jaaÐcanaa jã:cna:to expect p`tIxaa krnaa prati:k�a: to expel inakalanaa nika:lna:to fall igarnaa girna: to fight laD,naa la��na: to flee Baaganaa bha:gna:to flow bahnaa bahna: to fly ]D,naa / ]D,anaa u��na: (int) / u��a:na: (tr)to fry tlanaa talna: to forget BaUlanaa bhu:lna:to get panaa pa:na: to get down ]trnaa utarna: to get out inaklanaa nikalna: to get up ]znaa ut�hna:to give donaa de:na: to grind pIsanaa pi:sna: to grow ]%padna krnaa / baZ,naa utpa:dan karna: / ba��hna: to halt zhrnaa / Éknaa t �haharna: / rukna: to happen haonaa ho:na:to hear saunanaa sunna: to heat gama- krnaa garm karna: to help madd / sahayata krnaa madad / saha:yta: karna: to hide iCpanaa chipa:na: to hold pkD,naa samhalanaa paka��na: / samha:lna: to increase baZ,anaa ba��ha:na: to inform batanaa / saUicat krnaa bata:na: / su:cit karna: to join imalanaa milna: to jump kUdnaa ku:dna:to keep rKnaa rakhna: to kill maarnaa ma:rna:to kiss caUmanaa cu:mna: to knead gaÐUMdnaa g�:dna:to know jaananaa ja:nna: to laugh hÐsanaa hãsna: to learn saIKnaa si:khna: to leave CaoD,naa cho��na: to lie JaUz baaolanaa jhu:t�h bo:lna: to lie down laoTnaa le:t�na: to lift ]zanaa ut�ha:na to like caahnaa / psaMd krnaa ca:hna: / pasand karna:

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to listen saunanaa sunna: to live jaInaa / rhnaa ji:na: / rahna:to look doKnaa de:khna:to lose Kaonaa kho:na:to make banaanaa / tOyaar krnaa bana:na: / t�ya:�� karna: to meet imalanaa milna: to mix imalaanaa mila:na:to occur haonaa ho:na:to open Kaolanaa kho:lna:to (be) perturbed gabaD,anaa ghabr�a:na:to place rKnaa rakhna: to play Kolanaa khe:lna: to pluck taoD,naa to��na: to plunder laUTnaa lu:t�na: to possess rKnaa rakhna: to prepare banaanaa bana:na: / t�yar karna: to print Capnaa cha:pna: to protect bacaanaa baca:na: / rak�a: karna:to pull KIMcanaa kh�:cna: to purchase K,rIdnaa xari:dna to put on phnanaa pahanna: to quarrel JagaD,naa jhaga��na: to raise ]zanaa ut�ha:na: to reach phuÐcanaa pah�cna: to read pZ,naa pa��hna: to reap kaTnaa ka:t�na: to receive panaa pa:na: to recognize phcaananaa pahca:nna: to refund laaOTanaa / vaaipsa krnaa l�t�a:na: / va:pas karna:to release CaoD,naa cho��na: to relax Aarama krnaa a:ra:m karna:to remit Ada krnaa ada: karna: to reside rhnaa / inavaasa krnaa rahna: / niva:s karna: to return laaOTnaa l�t�na: / l�t�a:na: to resolve GaUmanaa ghu:mna: to rise ]znaa / jaaganaa ut�hna: / ja:gna: to roast baunanaa bunna:to run daOD,naa d���na: to save bacaanaa baca:na:to say khnaa kahna:

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to search Z,UÐZnaa / Kaojanaa d �h�:d�hna: / khojna:to see doKnaa de:khnato sell baocanaa be:cna: to send Baojanaa bhe:jna: to set (as sun) DUbanaa d �u:bna:to settle down basana basna: to shine camaknaa camakna: to shiver kaÐpnaa kã:pna: to sink DUbanaa d �u:bna:to sing gaanaa ga:na: to sit baOznaa b�:t �hna:to sleep saaonaa sona: to smile mauskranaa muskara:na:to speak baaolanaa bo:lna: / bha:�an � de:na: to spend ibatanaa / Kca- krnaa bita:na: / kharc karna: to start inaklanaa / AarMBa krnaa nikalna: / a:rambh karna: to stay zhrnaa t �hahrna: to steal cauranaa cura:na: to stir ihlaanaa hila:na: to stitch saInaa si:na: to stop Éknaa rukna:to stroll Thlanaa t �ahalna: to study pZ,naa pa��hna: to support samBaalanaa / sahara donaa sambha:lna: / saha:ra: dena: to suppress dbaanaa daba:na: to swim tOrna t�rna: to take laonaa le:na: to take out inakalanaa nika:lna:to teach isaKanaa / pZ,anaa sikha:na: / pa��ha:na: to tear off faD,naa pha:��na: to tell batanaa / khnaa bata:na: / kahna: to test jaaÐcanaa jã:cna:to think saaocanaa socna: to throw fOMknaa ph�:kna:to tolerate sahnaa sahna: to touch CUnaa chu:na: to travel yaa~a krnaa ya:tra: / safar karna: to tremble kaÐpnaa kã:pna: to twinkle camaknaa camakna: to understand samaJanaa samajhna:

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (334)



to violate taoD,naa to��na: to wait p`tIxaa krnaa prati:k�a: karna: to wake up jaaganaa ja:gna: to walk calanaa calna:to wander GaUmanaa ghu:mna: to wash Qaaonaa dho:na:to wear phnanaa pahanna: to weep raonaa ro:na: to weigh taolanaa to:lna:to welcome svaagat krnaa sva:gat karna: to win jaItnaa ji:tna: to wish caahnaa ca:hna: / iccha: karna: to work kama krnaa ka:m karna: to worship pUjaa krnaa pu:ja: karna: / iba:dat karna: to write ilaKnaa likhna:

5.10. Adverbs

above }pr u:par abundantly K,Uba xu:bafter baad / pICo ba:d / pi:che:after all AaiKr a:xir afterwards baad maoM ba:d: m�ahead Aagao a:ge: alone Akolao ake:le:also BaI bhi:always hmaoSaa / sada hame�a: / sada: among baIca bi:c anytime kBaI BaI kabhi: bhi:anywhere khIM kah�: at last AaiKr / AMt maoM a:xir / ant m�away dUr du:rbecause @yaaoMik kyõ:kibefore phlao / Aagao pahle: / a:ge: behind pICo pi:che: below naIcao ni:ce: between baIca / maQya bi:c / madhy certainly AvaSya / ja,$r ava�y / zaru:r constantly barabar bara:bar continuously lagaatar laga:ta:r day after tomorrow prsaaoM parsõ:

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (335)



distant dUr du:rdown naIcao ni:ce: ever hmaoSaa hame:�a: everywhere hr jagah har jagah far off bahut dUr bahut du:rgenerally p`aya: / A@sar pra:yah / aksar here yahaÐ yahã:how kOsao k�se: immediately turMt / faOrna turant / f�ran in front of ko Aagao ke a:ge in the presence of ko saamanao ke sa:mnejust now ABaI abhi: near pasa / samaIp pa:s / sami:pno na / nahIM na / nah�: not nahIM nah�: now Aba ab nowadays Aajakla a:jkal often paya: / A@sar pra:yah / aksar of course baoSak be:�ak only kovala / isaf- ke:val / sirf out baahr ba:har outside baahr ba:har perhaps Saayad �a:yad probably Saayad �a:yad quickly jaldI jaldi: quite ibalkula bilkulsilently caupcaap cupca:p slowly QaIro dhi:re: sometimes kBaI kBaI kabhi:-kabhi:somewhere khIM kah�: suddenly Acaanak aca:nak / eka:ek today Aaja a:j tomorrow kla kal (in) that direction ]Qar udharthen tba tab (in) this direction [Qar idhar thus yaaoM yõ:under naIcao ni:ce undoubtedly baoSak be:�ak unexpectedly Acaanak aca:nakupward }pr u:par

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (336)



very bahut bahutwell K,Uba xu:b(at) which direction ikQar kidharwhen (interrogative) kba kab when (relative) jaba jab where (interrogative) khaÐ kahã: where (relative) jahaÐ jahã: whether caaho ca:hewholly ibalkula bilkulyesterday kla kal

5.11. Conjunctions

although yaVip / halaaMik yadyapi / ha:lã:ki again ifr phirand AaOr / tqaa �r / tatha: but laoikna / ikMtu / prMtu / bailk lekin / kintu / parantu / balki hence [sailae isliyeor yaa ya:since caUMik c�:kiso [sailae isliye:so that taik ta:kithat ik ki though yaVip / halaaÐMik yadyapi / ha:lã:ki

5.12. Pronouns

any / anybody kao[- ko:i: / kisi: he vah yah ]sa [sa vah / yah / us / is I maOM / mauJa m�� / mujh it yah / [sa yah / is my maora me:ra:one�s own Apnaa apna: our hmaara hama:ra: she vah yah ]sa [sa vah / yah / us / is some kuC kuchsomebody kao[- ko:i: / kisi: something kuC kuchthese yao / [na ye / inthey vao / ]na ve / unthis yah / [sa yah / is

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (337)



those vao / ]na ve / unthou tU / tuJa tu: / tujhthy tora te:ra:you (familiar) tuma tum you (polite) Aap a:p your (faniliar) tumhara tumha:ra:your (polite) Aapka a:pka: we hma ham what @yaa kya: who (interrogative) kaOna / iksa / ikna k�n / kis / kinwho (relative) jaao / ijasa / ijana jo / jis / jin

Modern Hindi Grammar - [PDF Document] (2024)


What is the structure of the Hindi grammar? ›

Generally, most basic sentences in Hindi follow subject+object+verb order. While framing questions, most of the sentences remain the same, except you add “wh” words in Hindi, like kab, kaha, kaun, kyu, kaise, before the verb/verb phrase.

What is grammar pdf? ›

The system that our language uses to put parts of speech

together into sentences is known as grammar. The first two lessons focus on the two basic parts of any sentence: the subject and the. predicate.

What is the introduction of grammar? ›

Grammar is the language system that allows words to change their form, their order in a sentence, and combine with other words in novel ways. This applies to both written and spoken language.

How to learn Hindi perfectly? ›

Here are six strategies to learn Hindi:
  1. Start practicing some basic sentences in Hindi right away! Learning a new set of alphabets/script is going to take time. ...
  2. Learn phrases that are in practical and daily use first. ...
  3. Learn Basic Grammar. ...
  4. Vocabulary and flash-cards. ...
  5. Make mistakes! ...
  6. Practice, practice, practice!

How long does it take to learn Hindi fluently? ›

For a beginner, learning to hold an everyday conversation can occupy anywhere from 6 months to 12 months. However, to gain full fluency it usually takes anywhere between 3-5 years of dedication and practice. Consistency is essential when trying to learn any language, including Hindi.

What are the 12 basic rules of grammar pdf? ›

Twelve basic English grammar rules
  • Make your subjects and verbs agree. ...
  • Be consistent with your tenses. ...
  • Choose the right articles. ...
  • Use complete sentences. ...
  • Capitalize where needed. ...
  • Use the right pronouns. ...
  • Add the right preposition. ...
  • Link your ideas with conjunctions.
Jan 25, 2024

How many kinds of grammar are in a PDF? ›

Is this content inappropriate? This document outlines 10 different types of grammar: 1) Comparative grammar examines relationships between related languages. 2) Generative grammar specifies rules for well-formed sentences. 3) Mental grammar represents a speaker's tacit knowledge of rules.

What are the three main types of grammar? ›

Kinds of grammar.
  • prescriptive.
  • descriptive.
  • transformational-generative.

How do I improve my grammar? ›

Six tips for how to improve your English grammar.
  1. Do grammar exercises.
  2. Look things up.
  3. Use the grammar you know.
  4. Notice correct grammar.
  5. Learn the grammar of words.
  6. Read a lot.

What is the first step to learn grammar? ›

Learning English grammar step by step requires a structured approach. Start with sentence structure - understand subjects and predicates and how they work together to form complete sentences. Next, focus on articles and determiners, as they play a crucial role in determining noun usage.

How can I memorize grammar easily? ›

First, we need to understand how memory works.
  1. 7 Ways to Remember Vocabulary Words and Definitions.
  2. Read the rules and connect with examples. Read grammar rules and explore examples to better undestad the rules. ...
  3. Keep a grammar book at your disposal. ...
  4. Read more in English. ...
  5. Watch English movies or TV series.

What is the easiest way to learn grammar? ›

How to Improve Your English Grammar Skills
  1. Tip #1: Read, Read, Read. ...
  2. Tip #2: Consult a Grammar Manual. ...
  3. Tip #3: Use a Grammar Checker. ...
  4. Tip #4: Learn the Parts of Speech. ...
  5. Tip #5: Learn the Rules of Sentence Structure. ...
  6. Tip #6: Study Punctuation Rules. ...
  7. Tip #7: Play Grammar Games. ...
  8. Tip #8: Practice Writing with Correct Grammar.
May 7, 2022

How to learn Hindi spelling quickly? ›

If you want to learn how to write Hindi correctly, the easiest thing to do is to read a lot. Keep a dictionary nearby, and look up words you don't know. Try copying passages from a book or website to practice your writing.


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